THANK YOU Werner Bendorf and Richard Fletcher and the many Scouts of Boy Scout Troop 17, such as Rev. Don Graves, Billy Graves, (ALWAYS in my Prayers), Allen Bendorf, Sid and Bruce Curry, and so many others. What a Blessing your precious Lives have been to me. You have given me, and many more, a Gift beyond compare.
“The clearest way into the Universe is through a Forest Wilderness.” – John Muir
Passing Through the Love of God
Our Sacred Home, our World, has never lost its warm, inviting atmosphere. Your experience, your journey to the Natural World will make you feel totally at Home.
My Dear Friends, Life matters in a different way that is impossible to describe. Somehow, we can feel Happy and deeply relaxed and at Peace. . We need to be reminded of all the precious Life that may be wasted without spending Time Passing Through the Love of God, while wandering down the Sacred Pathways of His Beautiful, Natural World. . Being Mindful of His Blessings, found in the REAL World, of His Beautiful Creations in Nature, can give us a True Awareness of the Reason for Being.
Yes, we are here for a Reason – to Love and be Loved. . To feel the precious Love of God, escape the man made confinements that evolve into such madness, and return to your Home, to the Love expressed by God, in His Warm Embrace – found in every cloud above, in every Leaf of every Tree, in every Living Thing that Loves Life, like you and me.
Life has new meaning, when one realizes the Wonder that is our Creation and the Beauty that surrounds us.
Your Sacred Time spent wandering in the Cathedral of God’s Forests, helps to reflect upon His Divine Blessings and give Thanks for HIS Immeasurable Love.
Remember who you are, and you are – deeply Loved by God.
He will never forget you. . He WILL help you. Do not look into the darkness and fear the night. Trust and Believe in the Light. The Light of God’s Love, will always shine Bright.
Be glad that our brief Lives intertwine and share precious moments in little ways that Truly matter.
“There is nothing wrong with Living a simple Life” – J.R.R Tolkein
The Spirit of your precious Being will find Happiness. Stop Looking in all the wrong places.
You will find Joy in your Heart, in the smiles reflectedfrom those around you, in the Beautiful Leaves fluttering in the wind, to be cast upon the Sacred Ground and in the Beautiful Clouds cast into the air we breathe, in places where you Truly belong, in the Hearts of others, and in Prayer.
Let Love in. Let the Light in. Let your Heart in to the precious Lives of others in need.
Love is the Golden Gate that opens into Paradise. Love casts out fear. It is invincible. There is no difficulty that enough Love will not conquer, no affliction or infirmity that enough Love will not Heal.
There is no door that enough Love will not open.
“God is Love, and He that dwelleth in Love dwelleth in God and God In Him” – 1 John 4:16
We are Special and we are Blessed. Let us bow to the Divine within, and Give Thanks to the Lord.
An Effortless Way to Improve Your Memory
By David Robson
A surprisingly potent technique can boost your short and long-term recall – and it appears to help everyone from students to Alzheimer’s patients.
When trying to memorize new material, it’s easy to assume that the more work you put in, the better you will perform. Yet taking the occasional down time – to do literally nothing – may be exactly what you need. Just dim the lights, sit back, and enjoy 10-15 minutes of quiet contemplation, and you’ll find that your memory of the facts you have just learnt is far better than if you had attempted to use that moment more productively.
Although it’s already well known that we should pace our studies, new research suggests that we should aim for “minimal interference” during these breaks – deliberately avoiding any activity that could tamper with the delicate task of memory formation. So no running errands, checking your emails, or surfing the web on your smartphone. You really need to give your brain the chance for a complete recharge with no distractions.
An excuse to do nothing may seem like a perfect mnemonic technique for the lazy student, but this discovery may also offer some relief for people with amnesia and some forms of dementia, suggesting new ways to release a latent, previously unrecognized, capacity to learn and remember.
A simple technique could boost our short and long-term memory.
The remarkable memory-boosting benefits of undisturbed rest were first documented in 1900 by the German psychologist Georg Elias Muller and his student Alfons Pilzecker. In one of their many experiments on memory consolidation, Muller and Pilzecker first asked their participants to learn a list of meaningless syllables. Following a short study period, half the group were immediately given a second list to learn – while the rest were given a six-minute break before continuing.
When tested one-and-a-half-hours later, the two groups showed strikingly different patterns of recall. The participants given the break remembered nearly 50% of their list, compared to an average of 28% for the group who had been given no time to recharge their mental batteries. The finding suggested that our memory for new information is especially fragile just after it has first been encoded, making it more susceptible to interference from new information.
Although a handful of other psychologists occasionally returned to the finding, it was only in the early 2000s that the broader implications of it started to become known, with a pioneering study by Sergio Della Sala at the University of Edinburgh and Nelson Cowan at the University of Missouri.
We could all do with fewer distractions in our lives.
The team was interested in discovering whether reduced interference might improve the memories of people who had suffered a neurological injury, such as a stroke. Using a similar set-up to Muller and Pilzecker’s original study, they presented their participants with lists of 15 words and tested them 10 minutes later. In some trials, the participants remained busy with some standard cognitive tests; in others, they were asked to lie in a darkened room and avoid falling asleep.
It seems to benefit young and old people alike
The impact of the small intervention was more profound than anyone might have believed. Although the two most severely amnesic patients showed no benefit, the others tripled the number of words they could remember – from 14% to 49%, placing them almost within the range of healthy people with no neurological damage.
The next results were even more impressive. The participants were asked to listen to some stories and answer questions an hour later. Without the chance to rest, they could recall just 7% of the facts in the story; with the rest, this jumped to 79% – an astronomical 11-fold increase in the information they retained.
The researchers also found a similar, though less pronounced, benefit for healthy participants in each case, boosting recall between 10 and 30%.
Our memory for new information is especially fragile just after it has been encoded.
In each case, the researchers simply asked the participants to sit in a dim, quiet room, without their mobile phones or similar distractions. “We don’t give them any specific instructions with regards to what they should or shouldn’t do while resting,” Dewar says. “But questionnaires completed at the end of our experiments suggest that most people simply let their minds wander.”
Even then, we should be careful not to exert ourselves too hard as we daydream. In one study, for instance, participants were asked to imagine a past or future event during their break, which appeared to reduce their later recall of the newly learnt material. So it may be safest to avoid any concerted mental effort during our down time.
The exact mechanism is still unknown, though some clues come from a growing understanding of memory formation. It is now well accepted that once memories are initially encoded, they pass through a period of consolidation that cements them in long-term storage. This was once thought to happen primarily during sleep, with heightened communication between the hippocampus – where memories are first formed – and the cortex, a process that may build and strengthen the new neural connections that are necessary for later recall.
The brain might use downtime to cement what it has recently learnt.
This heightened nocturnal activity may be the reason that we often learn things better just before bed. But in line with Dewar’s work, a 2010 study by Lila Davachi at New York University, found that it was not limited to sleep, and similar neural activity occurs during periods of wakeful rest, too. In the study, participants were first asked to memorise pairs of pictures – matching a face to an object or scene – and then allowed to lie back and let their minds wander for a short period. Sure enough, she found increased communication between the hippocampus and areas of the visual cortex during their rest. Crucially, people who showed a greater increase in connectivity between these areas were the ones who remembered more of the task, she says.
Perhaps the brain takes any potential down time to cement what it has recently learnt – and reducing extra stimulation at this time may ease that process. It would seem that neurological damage may render the brain especially vulnerable to that interference after learning a new memory, which is why the period of rest proved to be particularly potent for stroke survivors and people with Alzheimer’s disease.
Other psychologists are excited about the research. “The effect is quite consistent across studies now in a range of experiments and memory tasks,” says Aidan Horner at the University of York. “It’s fascinating.” Horner agrees that it could potentially offer new ways to help individuals with impairments to function.
Scheduling regular periods of rest could help us all hold onto new memories.
Practically speaking, he points out that it may be difficult to schedule enough periods of rest to increase their overall daily recall. But he thinks it could still be valuable to help a patient learn important new information – such as learning the name and face of a new carer. “Perhaps a short period of wakeful rest after that would increase the chances that they would remember that person, and therefore feel more comfortable with them later on.” Dewar tells me that she is aware of one patient who seems to have benefitted from using a short rest to learn the name of their grandchild, though she emphasises that it is only anecdotal evidence.
Thomas Baguley at Nottingham Trent Universityin the UK is also cautiously optimistic. He points out that some Alzheimer’s patients are already advised to engage in mindfulness techniques to alleviate stress and improve overall well-being. “Some [of these] interventions may also promote wakeful rest and it is worth exploring whether they work in part because of reducing interference,” he says, though it may be difficult to implement in people with severe dementia, he says.
Beyond the clinical benefits for these patients, Baguley and Horner both agree that scheduling regular periods of rest, without distraction, could help us all hold onto new material a little more firmly. After all, for many students, the 10-30% improvements recorded in these studies could mark the difference between a grade or two. “I can imagine you could embed these 10-15 minute breaks within a revision period,” says Horner, “and that might be a useful way of making small improvements to your ability to remember later on.”
In the age of information overload, it’s worth remembering that our smartphones aren’t the only thing that needs a regular recharge. Our minds clearly do too.
David Robson is a freelance writer based in London. He is @d_a_robson on Twitter.
There is no gulf that enough Love will not bridge; no wall that enough Love will nit throw down; no sin that enough Love will not redeem! It makes no difference how deeply seated may be the trouble, how hopeless the outlook, how muddled the tangle, how great the mistake; a sufficient realization of Love will Dissolve it All! If only You could Love enough You would Be The Happiest and The Most Powerful Being In The World! – Emmey Fox
I have often marveled at the Beauty of the Natural World, especially in my youth. My Heart still goes back to cherished moments in places that I hold so precious and dear to me. Every time I listen to the Beautiful songs of precious Birds, and see incredible and amazing animals in the wild, my Heart swells with Love and appreciation for my Creator and for the Peace offered to everyone, to help us withstand these troubled times.
What God has provided to us can have many meanings and touch people in so many different ways.
The Love of God speaks to everyone, if we listen. And, as we experience the trials and tribulations of this brief spark called Life, we are reminded by the Natural World that each of us is a Child of God, and that our Heavenly Father Loves us all.
My Dear Friend, there is always something we can do to feel our Creator’s Love.
Venture out into the REAL World, into His Natural World, and smell a Beautiful Wild Flower, watch the glowing Sun set, let your Heart soar into the magnificent Sky you simply cannot deny.
There is always Hope. And it resides in the Home created by God – our Beautiful, NaturalHome.
Communing with Nature is God’s way of letting us know, we are His Beloved Children. And He Truly Loves us.
“I hear the mountain Birds, the sound of rivers singing a song I’ve often heard, it flows through me now So clear and so loud I stand where I am and forever I’m dreaming of home I feel so alone, I’m dreaming of home It’s carried in the air, the breeze of early morning I see the land so fair, my Heart opens wide There’s sadness inside I stand where I am and forever I’m dreaming of home I feel so alone, I’m dreaming of home This is no foreign sky, I see no foreign light But far away am I from some peaceful land I’m longing to stand A hand in my hand forever I’m dreaming of home I feel so alone, I’m dreaming of home.” . – Artist: Libera Album: Hope click here to play this stunningly Beautiful Song
My Dear Friends, just close your eyes and imagine yourself in God’s Forest. Picture the Sun shining down upon you and a slow, warm wind blowing gently upon you. His Beautiful Birds are singing, and you hear a river somewhere not far from you, gently flowing. Your worries and troubles are gone, there are no problems, no regrets. . Does it not feel real?
All one has to do is close your eyes and realize where you really are, and you are transported to His Magical Kingdom, where there are no worries or concerns. Our World is Blessed with Beautiful Nature. It is a Blessing to see this Beautiful World. Let us Thank God for the Love He shares with us. . God is everywhere, He is in everything, and He can make you glad with so much Beauty and Wonder.
Just find a gently flowing stream in your Heart, in your mind. Sit there, beside the Sacred Waters and let it flow over your Heart and through your mind, and Dream.
The Love you will surely feel, is the only reality you should awaken to in this Life.
God’s Love is the only reality you will awaken to in the next Life.
Why not enjoy it now.
“When you Live from the Heart, you begin to touch into the Universal Experience of Love. LOVE is the source of everything – the Fabric which makes up our very existence.” – Dr. Gail Brenner
Yes, go out into God’s Glorious Cathedral of the Beautiful Outdoors. Look up at the night sky and see a shooting Star. There is a Prayer and a Message that resides deep within the Blessing of Sacred Awareness. God can touch your Heart while reading His Beautiful night sky.
May the shadows of thoughts, the overthinking, and the darkness of doubt leave your mind and allow clarity to replace confusion, and Peace and calmness fill your precious Life.
7 Common Sense Tips That’ll Improve Your Life Right Away
While it’s good to cultivate intelligence, being aware and prepared are equally as important (if not more so, when it really counts). Here are a few common sense tips that otherwise clever people easily miss:
1. Keep a list of numbers in your wallet
If you were to lose your cell phone right now, how many numbers would you have memorized? Do you have a way of knowing where you are besides Google Maps or getting around other than Uber?
In a world where many of us truly rely on our phones for navigation, communication, transportation, and more, it’s smart to limit your total dependence on this one device.
Write 4-5 emergency contact numbers on the back of a receipt right now and stick it in your wallet. If you ever lose your phone, you’ll be glad to be able to get in touch with the people who matter most, right when you need them.
2. Get a phone mount for your car
I can’t tell you the number of friends I have who still hold their phones on their laps or try to prop them somewhere in the car. This is both inconvenient and dangerous (for you and for others). Distracted driving caused over 400,000 major injuries, and texting and driving is 6x more likely to get you in an accident than driving drunk.
It costs less than $10 to get a simple car mount on Amazon or at a big box store. Do it.
3. Keep an emergency $20 in your wallet
There are still places that post the sign that strikes fear into the heart of every credit card and Apple Payer: “Cash only.” And those places are usually ones in which you don’t want to be stuck.
The next time CVS asks you if you want cash back, get a $20, fold it up into a tiny little square and stick it in the back of your wallet. You’ll be glad you did.
4. Procure some plants
Science says plants cleanse the air of toxins, elevate your mood, release oxygen into the atmosphere (which helps you feel more clearheaded), humidify the air, and give you something to take care of, which stimulates the release of feel-good hormones.
This is a no brainer: Add plants for your bedroom and officefor an easy and cheap way to improve your life concretely and right away. Here’s a list of the top 10 NASA-recommended houseplants (some don’t even need to be watered for months).
5. Remember online exercise videos
If one of your new year’s resolutions is to improve your physical fitness, you probably have lofty goals like going to the gym 3-4 times a week. That’s great, but when it’s sleeting out and you had to stay late at the office, you may not make it.
When you’re short on time and motivation, use the abundant 10-20 minute exercise videos on YouTube to exercise quickly at home. You can easily strengthen your core, tone muscles, or simply stretch — all of which will help you prevent injury when you do make it to the gym.
6. Remember that you can always use your phone to share your location
Ever been on an Uber trip and felt uncomfortable with the driver? In this or any situation in which you want to let someone to know precisely where you are, you can.
Familiarize yourself with this now: On an iPhone, when composing a text, tap on the info button in the upper right hand corner, then hit Share My Location. You can choose for how long you wish to share it. If you have a droid, get the app Glympse.
Also remember that you don’t have to unlock your iPhone to dial 911. The bottom left of your locked screen says “Emergency” for a reason. Again, familiarize yourself with this now. Hopefully you’ll never need it, but if you do, you’re covered.
7. Buy these 5 emergency items
If there were a natural disaster, how prepared would you be? Snag these five items and you’ll be more prepared than 90% of the population:
Several gallons of water. If the water supply is compromised, this will be your biggest need. If you have a car, keep a few gallons in your trunk, too.
Hydrogen peroxide and bandages. If someone is injured, you’ll need to cleanse wounds until real help arrives. Know that honey can also be used as a sticky antiseptic (just pour it over a wound and then cover it).
Space blankets. They’re lightweight, so they work even if you’ve got to move locations.
Canned foods. Get both pop top (don’t require a can opener; good for when you’re on the go) and ones that require a can opener (the food lasts longer).
A solar-powered, hand-crank cell phone charger. If the grid goes down, you’ll be able to charge your devices with solar, or by hand if there’s limited sunlight. For just over $20, you can get one that doubles as a radio and flashlight.
“The three great essentials to achieve anything worth while are: hard work, stick-to-itiveness, and common sense.” – Thomas Edison
My Prayer is that we find the Inner Child we all so fervently need.
“Truly, I say to you, unless you turn and become like Children, you will never enter the Kingdom of Heaven.” – Matthew 18:2-4
Everything we desire in Life is simple. What we truly need is Love and Forgiveness, Compassion and Peace of mind. And these precious Gifts all come through you from God.
If darkness prevails in Life, a Robe of Remembrance of the Love of our Lord may be worn to clothe our fragile Being.
The day will come when your precious Dreams come True. Through Prayer you will finally feel that you are at Peace with yourself, and everything and everyone around you.
Let your Sacred Life be filled with Joy and the Light of God’s Love.
The Love of God is so Beautiful. He gives us truly Beautiful things in Life. He gives us Life.
.With God everything is so Powerful and Peaceful and Indescribably Beautiful. Let us Thank Him and rejoice in His Creation of us. . Day by Day He is making a way for us. He is a Lamp to our feet. He is the Light in the darkness. . He is the Keeper of Promises. And the best Gift we can Give to Him is our Prayerful Thanksgiving. Our Prayers add Poetry to this Beautiful Life.
His Divine and Inspiring Words are so Uplifting and Pure.
Our World is a Heavenly Garden with Beautifully colored Flowers, wonderful singing Birds, and Butterflies that open their wings and open our Hearts in a marvelous Dance of Joy and Life.
The Presence of God is all around, and within your Sacred Heart.
So many Beautiful Things can be seen and heard. See and hear them with your Heart.
Your Beautiful Prayer is always a Thing of Clarity and Beauty. When we Pray, God listens to Music in our Hearts and the Song of our Lives.
The Prayers of our Heart allow us to go back in Time and be Forgiven and be Embraced by our Creator. . My Dear Friends, we come through our Parents, and from God.
When we think of God in our Life, we capture the same Love Bond between a Mother and Baby, and the absolute Beauty of new Life.
“The pain you’ve been feeling can’t compare to the Joy that is coming.” – Romans 8:18
Empty your mind. Be formless, shapeless – like water. When you put water into a cup, it becomes the shape of the cup, you put water into a bottle, it becomes like the bottle, you put it in a teapot, it becomes the tea in the pot. Now your worries can flow. Be water, my Friend. Be what your are.
Yes, we are Water. Take the shape that you desire, like water does. . Water makes up about 71% of the Earth’s surface, about the same as you. Why are we so easy to be shaped? Why are we so easily shaped by the Society`s needs?
We are water. And water always shapes itself according to the surfaces it touches.
When the Heart is not burdened by the mind, the Soul will fly so freely in Peaceful ways.
Wonderful Spring Flowers quiet the mind, and bring Magical Moments to our Hearts. When the warm rays of the Sun hit the Earth, everything starts to bloom again. It is a Miracle how Nature changes in Spring.
Let the Love of God warm your Heart, and feel the Miracle of your Life as it Beautifully blossoms again.
A World Without Cancer: Is Prevention the Cure?
In the following interview, Dr. Margaret I. Cuomo, author of the book A World Without Cancer, discusses the importance of cancer prevention with Motley Fool health care analyst Max Macaluso.
Macaluso: Dr. Cuomo is the author of the new book, A World Without Cancer, and she’s also the daughter of our former Governor Cuomo, and the sister of our current Governor Cuomo.
It’s been about 40 years – actually more than 40 years – since 1971, when the war on cancer was declared by President Richard Nixon. In that time, we’ve spent over $90 billion on cancer research, and yet we are still seeing cancer incidence rates rise.
We haven’t come as far as you’d think we should have, for that amount of time and money spent, so I said to myself, with all the horrific effects of cancer on the lives of my patients, friends, and family, it was time to delve into the subject and give it a fresh perspective.
Macaluso: In your book you talk a lot about the misconceptions of cancer prevention. What do you think the top misconception is today?
Cuomo: I think most people, even people who are quite knowledgeable, think that cancer is an inevitability. “No matter what I do, I’m going to get cancer. Either I’ll inherit it, or I’ll grow old enough and I’ll get cancer just because I’ve grown old.”
That’s clearly not the case. We know that over 50% of all cancers are preventable. Attention to diet, exercise, limiting alcohol, ending smoking, protecting our skin from the sun, and taking vitamin D all contribute to a cancer-free life and the environmental toxins that are in our midst can be eliminated, or at least limited so that they don’t raise our risk of cancer.
Macaluso: What are some of the specific things we’re not paying enough attention to when it comes to prevention? Let’s start with diet.
Cuomo: OK, diet. You know the old expression, “You are what you eat.” To a large extent, that’s very true. A plant-based diet is what nearly all the experts say is not only the healthiest in terms of preventing heart disease and diabetes, but also reducing our risk for cancer.
If you look at your plate, your daily plate, two-thirds of it should be fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grainslike brown rice or quinoa, or even a whole grain pasta – and then a very small amount of lean protein like fish or chicken, and a minimal amount of red meat. That is the cancer prevention diet, but it also, as I say, decreases your risk for heart disease and diabetes.
Limiting alcohol – that means you really can’t afford to go out once a week and binge. They say no more than one drink a day of alcohol – that includes wine – for a woman and no more than two for a man, and it may be even less than that, but certainly you want to watch your alcohol intake.
Macaluso: I can tell you, after reading your book I definitely modified my diet. I’m drinking more green teaand a lot more vegetables.
Cuomo: Excellent. Green tea has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects.
Macaluso: Let’s shift the discussion from diet to environmental factors.
Cuomo: Yes, environment; very important. In fact, the United Nations just issued a report, that the World Health Organization was involved in as well, in which it said that there are so many of the so-called “endocrine disrupting chemicals,” such as BPA, which are in our plastic water bottles, other beverages, also food containers, the lining of the cans of food, soup — a can of soup, a can of beans — etc. Even a cashier receipt can have BPA.
Parabens – parabens are in everything from facial wash to shampoo, toothpaste – these are endocrine-disrupting chemicals. What does that mean?
That means they modify the development of hormones in our body. They affect our endocrine system, which has been linked to cancers of the breast, prostate, thyroid, and others. Also linked to obesity and diabetes, and they even drew a link to autism.
For all those reasons we want to rid our products, our personal care products at the very least, of these harmful chemicals, so there is good news on that note.
Macaluso: In your book, you talk a lot about BPAs and all the things in consumer packaging. I understand that Johnson & Johnson is leading the charge in making a commitment to rid their products of these chemicals. Can you speak a little bit about that?
Cuomo: Yes. I applaud Johnson & Johnson.They are the first major consumer products company in the United States to voluntarily commit to removing all harmful chemicals from their personal care products.
I would like to see other major companies, like Procter & Gamble and Colgate and L’Oreal follow the good example of Johnson & Johnson. Why should consumers be at risk for washing their face or brushing their teeth?
Macaluso: Excellent point. Going along with that, are there any other companies focused on organic products or specific foods, that you might applaud?
Cuomo: Yes. I am happy to share with you, in terms of being BPA-free in all of their food packaging materials, the Hain Celestial Group. First of all, they’re the market leader in organic products, I’ve learned, and they include products such as Arrowhead Mills, Health Valley, Earth’s Best baby food, Walnut Acres juices, DeBoles pasta, Imagine sauces and soups.
They have made a commitment to BPA-free in all of their food packaging, cans, etc., and they also are very conscious in terms of sustainability for their packaging materials, so big applause for Hain Celestial Group.
Also, Whole Foods 365 brands, many of their brands are BPA-free, Trader Joe’s, and Eden Foods are some that come to mind.
Macaluso: Is there anything that consumers can do, or do we just have to wait for these companies to change their practices?
Cuomo: What you can do as an educated consumer is to read the labels. Certainly, if you don’t see “BPA free,” you have to question, “Does this packaging material contain BPA?”
In terms of your personal care products, read the labels. If you see anything with “paraben” in it – that means methylparaben, butylparaben – anything that has that phrase, “paraben,” avoid it completely. Also another word, difficult to pronounce, phthalates, another endocrine disruptor.
Basically, Max, anything you can’t pronounce you would be wise to stay away from it.
Macaluso: Yeah, I think that’s a good rule of thumb. Let’s talk a little bit about obesity. I think a lot of people might not realize that obesity is linked to certain types of cancers.
Cuomo: Yes. Obesity is linked to quite a few cancers. Scientists have pointed to the fact that breast cancer and colon cancer are definitely linked to obesity, but there are many other cancers that are as well.
What do we want to do? How do we avoid this epidemic? Do you realize, in the past 30 years the rate of obesity among children has tripled, and it has doubled for adults? Everyone agrees we have an epidemic. What do we do about it?
It’s all about education, isn’t it? We have to start with our very youngest children, teaching them what is a healthful diet. It’s not a bag of chips at every meal. It’s not a can of soda at every meal. If children don’t have the tools, the strategies, how can we expect them to eat healthfully?
Often times, what children learn in school in terms of vegetables and a plant-based diet, they will take home and they will be the teachers for their parents and caregivers. Isn’t that a wonderful thing?
I really feel education is the key here.
Macaluso: Once again, focused more on prevention than treatments.
Cuomo: Prevention is so important.
Macaluso: Let’s talk about tobacco products a little bit. Not all smokers get lung cancer, but it is a major risk factor.
Cuomo: Tobacco is a scourge and as you say, certainly we’ve proven that it causes lung cancer but it causes many other cancers as well; cancers of the digestive tract, even pancreas and bladder, have been linked to smoking.
What do we do? Well, years ago there was something called the Master Settlement Agreement, where all of the tobacco companies agreed to contribute billions of dollars to a fund that would later be given to the states with the intention that those funds be used for tobacco cessation programs and other tobacco elimination programs.
However, as I understand it the law is that the money goes to the states, but the states are not compelled to use it for that purpose. In these economically trying times, states are using it for infrastructure, they’re using it for a lot of other reasons.
We have to get back to preserving that money for tobacco cessation. Right now we have an increasing trend in smoking among adolescents, and among people of low education and low income.
Again, the burden of their illnesses is going to impact all of us. It doesn’t only impact the person who is going to be unfortunate enough to get lung cancer; it affects our health care costs, and we all absorb that, so it behooves all of us to make sure those funds are used properly.
Macaluso: Let’s shift the conversation from prevention to treatment. Your book does talk about some major successes in medicine, in the treatment of cancer. One in particular is Novartis’ Gleevec. This is a treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia.
What I was wondering, reading your book, was why haven’t we been able to replicate the success of Gleevec and chronic myeloid leukemia with other types of cancer, namely solid tumors?
Cuomo: That’s a very astute question. Chronic myeloid or myelogenous leukemia, CML, is based on a single genetic mutation. This terrible disease is actually a very simple disease, unlike breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer – these more common cancers – which are several orders of magnitude more complicated than that.
Therefore, Gleevec can attack CML and effectively cure it because it’s a very simple disease. Breast, prostate, lung cancer, are all much more complicated and it’s not as easy to treat them with a single chemotherapeutic agent or a monoclonal antibody, and that’s what Gleevec is.
Cuomo: prevention is the most effective strategy we have for ridding ourselves of cancer, and yet we devote so little time and attention to it.
My agenda is not to draw attention away from treatment. Again, there will always be patients who require treatment, and they should have it. What I am saying is that we have the intellectual resources and the financial capability to achieve both.
The National Cancer Prevention Institute would do just that. It would be based on a collaborative focused effort divided into teams, each team addressing a specific cancer type, and it would draw from many disciplines.
It would be a trans-disciplinary approach, including epidemiology, cancer biology, microbiology, immunology, engineering, pharmaceuticals, even urban planning; everything you need to decrease cancer incidence.
I don’t see that happening right now, and a lot of people that have been studying this for a long time feel it is time now to do this kind of approach, the way we did for the moonshot and for the Human Genome Project, both of which took a collaborative effort which had team science at its core. That’s what we should use for the prevention of cancer.
Macaluso: Dr. Cuomo, recently there was an Institute of Medicine report that addressed cancer care. Can you speak a little bit about that?
Cuomo: Yes. I was very pleased to see some experts in the country, such as Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel, Dr. Peter Bach, contribute to this workshop last October. They just issued a report from the Institute of Medicine addressing the question, “How do we contain cancer costs and what can we be doing better?”
Some of the key points were, what should a cancer therapy do? How do we assess its effectiveness and its value?
Well, it should increase our overall survival. It should increase the patient’s survival. It should increase the patient’s quality of life, while at the same time it should have very few side effects – certainly not life-threatening side effects or side effects that degrade that quality of life – and it should contain costs. It should not be an unsustainable cost.
I thought that was a very good way of focusing attention on the question of how do we end the spiral of cancer care cost in America.
Macaluso: Thank you very much. Once again, Dr. Margaret Cuomo, author of the bookA World Without Cancer.
Max is the Technology, Biopharma & Health Care Bureau Chief at Fool.com. Prior to joining the Fool, he completed a PhD in chemistry at the University of Cambridge and an MBA at the College des Ingenieurs.
Your Love creates a Harbor for other precious Souls, a place to nurture and save and share sorrows and Joy and rejoin our very Human race. Your Compassion brings real Beauty into the World.
Every Child of God deserves Happiness and Love. Life and living is truly challenging now, but look for the Beauty all around us. Our Beautiful World is shining with Light and the Blessings of serenity, and the Sacred Promise of Infinity. Let us look to God’s Natural World in our Time of need. His Love is expressed in every Leaf of every Tree. He truly Loves us.
His Love is so Great that it is totally beyond Human comprehension.
Remember, Life only happens once. Cherish each moment on our truly Inspirational Planet.
Our Sacred World is a Heavenly Garden with Beautifully Colored Flowers, wonderful Birds of the sky, Butterflies with their wings on fire with colors we simply cannot deny ever dancing in God’s Bright Blue Sky.
Through your Loving Heart you create a World where tired Hearts can find Peace and Harmony. In your Loving Presence Hearts will survive and heal. . You can become an amazing piece of Heaven on Earth, and others will thank you for being you.
Explore our Beautiful World. Become real by Loving others, and Loving yourself. Everyone is in the same existence as you and me. . A Happy Life may easily be found in creating Joy for others.
What we give, we receive.
what elevates us in Life is not what we receive, but whatwegive. The more of ourselves that we give, the better we feel, and the more we become.
“Forevery action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Newton published his laws of motion in 1687, in his seminal work “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.“ . Yes, in essence, all energy of force and motion will have an equal and reverse energy of force and motion. The same can be said for interpersonal communication, and what we do for others.
My Dear Friends, YOU are Loved. You are the physical and Spiritual embodiment of God’s Love. You breathe Love. And you feel Love, if you choose to.
We are all attracted by the Beauty of Light, and Love.
You cannot imagine how discovering the vibrant Love that resides deep in your Heart will change your Life, and the precious Lives of those around you. It will save your Life, and save your precious Soul.
By coming to know the true depth of all the Love that dwells in your Sacred Heart, you will be activated to a quantum leap in all areas of Life. Your Life will be fulfilled with the deepest yearnings of your Soul, and Love you cannot imagine. The inner Core of your Being will be lit up by the strongest and most calming Light of awareness you can imagine.
If we want to move forward, we must move together. To quiet the mind, become truly aware of those around you and connect with them through your intuitive desire to help them.
.Thoughts that come into our awareness from helping others, cleanse the mind as they travel deep down within our Being. And as this awareness travels deeper into our Essence, the mind is liberated to allow thought to become limitless in energy and possibility. And the Infinite Love of God is reflected in the Life you are living, and the Love you are giving.
You are not too late. This lake of sorrow found surrounding Today and Tomorrow, is not of your own. It is the sorrow of us all, spread across Humanity, while we dream of someone or something lifting us to the Stars.
I Pray you experience mental clarity and Peace. May you find Divine Harmony. . Through Prayer, we cultivate a Heart as Life giving as the Sun. And we spread Joy and Light to all who come into contact with us.
May you find a place of deep Compassion in your Sacred Heart to guide you in all that you do. You are Love of the Purest Form. . You are a Child of God. . Goodnight.
There are individuals who refuse to consider the size of the universe because it terrifies them. In fact, my thoughts tend to navigate toward the extreme opposite. I am fascinated by the enormity of the universe and where I fit in. Let me start by sharing my belief:
The universe is a completely balanced entity and we are a small, but necessary part of what keeps it that way.
I am not a scientist. I don’t even have a scientific mind. However, I do believe in science. I see constant significant corrections and the impact on my life. How much of my theory about the universe is true? I am uncertain and I am okay with that. I believe that the universe is infinite, vast, and mysterious. I especially love the mysterious part.
The life and death cycle occurs throughout the universe: the stars, planets, galaxies, comets, etc., have a life cycle and it all seems to have a singular purpose and that is renewal. Our sun may not have a heartbeat, however, there is no denying that it had a beginning, a middle and it will have an end. The life of our sun serves a higher purpose for the entire universe, and I for one, am forever grateful. If you examine nearly every aspect of our universe, you will come to a similar conclusion: there is a reason for everything and everything has a purpose. So why would any of us not appreciate that we exist for a reason. Furthermore, why is it so important for us to figure out what that reason is? We are the universe and the universe is us; I can live with that. In fact, I am empowered by this truth.
I choose to go with the “renewal” explanation for my own life. Consider this my spiritual awakening. I am alive for a purpose I may never fully understand; however, I understand life has meaning. My life had a beginning, it has a middle, and it will eventually have an end. What is left of me when I am no longer breathing will also have a purpose; whether it be a memory, a lesson taught, a thought that lingered, dust particles, or to make someone smile, it doesn’t matter — what matters is how I choose to take advantage of life now. From where I’m sitting, life was a gift I was fortunate to receive; random or otherwise.
Where My Thoughts Go and How That Has Changed Over Time
At a certain point in your life you realize that you have lived more of your life than you have left to live. This realization can be quite sobering. If you sit with it for awhile, your thoughts will visit various places; some dark and some encouraging. You might ask what could be encouraging about knowing you have a limited amount of time left to live? Well, I’ll share my point of view:
First, it forces you to take stock of your life. If there are things that you long ago decided you wanted to do, well then, you ought to get to it. You must consider variables such as physical limitations, priorities, whether you want to do something alone or with others, and so on. Second, and perhaps more importantly, it forces you to consider what you need to do in order to make certain things happen. For example, if you want to climb a mountain, you’d better make sure you’re in the right shape to do it or that you can travel to said mountain. If one of your life dreams is to have a home on the beach, you may need to save a bit more or choose a different beach.
I recently had a revelation that helps me in sorting all this out. It occurred to me that if my life ended, I probably wouldn’t be regretting what I didn’t get done. Oh come on, it’s not morose, it’s realistic.
How Knowing What I Know Helps Me to Cope
I don’t want to sound preachy or too philosophical. I prefer when others share their personal story or history, rather than telling you on how to live your own life. After years of psychological therapy and a good deal of reflective thinking, I cope by being true to myself. Living for others or believing what others tell you to believe, robs you of your own life. No one knows you better than you know yourself. Take advantage of that knowledge and go your own way — oops, a bit preachy. If this isn’t how you roll, toss my words aside and live whichever way you choose; just know that personal fulfillment is just that, personal.
What If I’m Wrong?
I don’t think much about alternative explanations for my own existence. ‘What if’ games are for worry warts and I tend to worry more about the people I love than myself. I figure that if I’m wrong and there is life after death, well then, I’ll be pleasantly surprised (shush). I strongly believe that all living beings possess a soul and it is our soul that makes us all unique. Most people tend to have their own truth; hopefully, that truth brings you comfort and guidance. And if you truly believe that I don’t spend a great deal of time worrying, I have some property in the Florida swampland to sell you.
Each of these questions focuses on a unique point. The first, for example, asks whether there is an over-arching design or goal to human existence that might clarify our place in the grand scheme of things. The second asks whether some approaches to life are better than others. All of the above questions, though, presume that something’s not right with life as we currently experience it, and we’d like a solution to the problem.
Not everyone is plagued by questions of life’s meaning, and a good test for determining the grip that this has on you personally was suggested by German philosopher Frederick Nietzsche (1844-1900). In ancient times, philosophers from many cultures around the globe entertained a concept called the eternal return. On this view, the universe that we live in now is just one in an endless series of universes that occurs one right after another, each being identical with the others, right down to the tiniest detail. With our present universe, there are fixed laws of nature that determine how it unfolds, including everything about my own personal existence, such as how tall I am, who I married, the job that I have, and every word I ever uttered. Someday this universe will be destroyed by cosmic forces, and from its ashes a new universe will be formed. It too will be shaped by exactly the same laws of nature, and thus all events will unfold in exactly the same way, including my own life. This cycle of universes will continue again and again, forever. Whether you believe the theory of the eternal return is not important. What Nietzsche asks, though, is how you would feel if it was true, and for eternity you would be reliving the exact same events in your life, over and over, in each successive universe. If you would be OK with that, then likely you are not especially bothered by problems of life’s meaning. You are happy with this life, and you would be content living the identical life over and over. However, if the notion of the eternal return sounds like a nightmare to you, then maybe you have serious issues with the meaning of life as you experience it right now.
Philosophers are not the only ones interested in questions about life’s meaning. Psychological studies tell us that happiness declines in our 20s and returns around age 50. That’s a long period of personal struggle for each of us, and today’s self-help industry has jumped in to address our problems. While many of these involve specific concerns, such as relationship issues or alcohol dependence, others are more general in nature. A mid-life crisis or a “spiritual” crisis, for example, will often involve larger questions of purpose and fulfillment. Philosophical discussions of the meaning of life are not meant to compete with self-help therapies. The main appeal of philosophy’s contributions to this issue rests in the puzzle itself: here is a timeless problem that touches the core of human existence. What exactly is behind the problem and which, if any, of the standard solutions are plausible?
How is it possible to Live in a World of so much chaos, and enjoy the Beautiful Wonders of the World? How much we waste of our precious Gift of Time coping with the chaos of violence, and apathy and fear and ignorance. . Let us embrace a World of Peace, instead – inner peace, leading us to World Peace.
Love is the only power capable of spinning Worlds into existence. Our Natural World is a Beautiful, amazing piece of God’s Creation. It is Love.
The Divine Perfection of Love is the O n l y Reality and requires the awakened Inner eye of the Heart to see. Thank You Dear Lord for sharing your Divine Gift of Love through the Beauty of Your Nature.
The Natural World takes us to places we can only dream about.
My Dear Friends, ONE positive thought can change your whole Life.
“Change your thoughts and you change your World.” – Norman Vincent Peale
There is so much People will never know about this Sacred World. And one precious awareness is this: YOU were born to be Happy.
Your Heart can be free of sadness, your mind free of worries, with your Life full of gladness, and your body free of illness, through your Prayer for God’s Blessings.
“In great deeds, something abides. On great fields, something stays. Forms change and pass; bodies disappear; but Spirits linger, to consecrate ground for the vision-place of Souls… generations that know us not and that we know not of, Heart-drawn to see where and by whom great things were suffered and done for them, shall come to this deathless field, to ponder and dream; and lo! The Shadow of a Mighty Presence shall wrap them in Its Bosom, and the Power of the Vision pass into their Souls.” ― Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
In this brief Time of ours, let us wipe away our tears, and remain optimistic in a World that sometimes makes us doubt our Sacred Human Spirit that resides in all of us. The Desire of God for us to be kind, to be good, and to be respectful to our fellow Man and Woman, will guide us down the Pathway to Love.
God’s Love for us is so great that it is totally beyond Human comprehension.
You are a Sacred Being of Light, a Child of God. Accept Life from the Hand of God, and accept the Blessings that come to you. They always come in abundance beyond our awareness or Belief.
“You are sons of the LORD your God.” – Deuteronomy 14:1
Through Prayer we connect with our Creator, God. Have Faith and Trust in His Divine Love.
We were born to make manifest the Glory of God that is within us, and to shine, as children do. And as we let the Light of our Love shine, we give other people permission to do the same. . The Light of your Love is a reflection of understanding that God is your Father, and your path forward is Graced by the Loving Presence of the Holy Spirit. Love is awareness that what you were before, is nothing like what you are now.
We are composed of Sacred and Precious Life, with His Love as our Dream, full of vivid and unforgettable emotions. We will always be deeply Loved by our Creator.
This isn’t just a Chapter of the Greatest Story ever told, it is the Sacred Story of your Life.
. The Magnificence of our Creation is far greater the we can ever be aware of.
Yes, it is impossible to imagine
anything more Beautiful than you.
You are beyond Beautiful. You are so amazing and so real, and you remain in the Heart of your Divine Creator. Think about all the Love needed to Create and sustain Life. And because that Love touches the deepness of your Soul, your Spirit is spreading Light into the Hearts of those around you.
Listen to the voice in your Heart.
Start searching for the Love that keeps us breathing, keeps the Heart pulsating, and keeps your mind remembering all the Beauty in Life God has given to you. Think of all the wonderful Times you cherished, the Treasured Friends you miss, then add Prayer and Thanksgiving.
Give Thanks to the Lord for the Beauty of this World, for the Universe, and for creating you and Loving you. Live your best Life, for all those around you, until it’s time to go Home. We are all Homeward Bound.
Life is made of being aware, accepting and understanding, of sharing and Believing. Pure and simple thoughts are needed to know what we are, where we are going, and what we have.
Your lost and Loved will always be close to you, in your Heart they will reside, in your mind the memories will keep you together.
Blessings to you and yours. Please take good care of each other, and never presume you have more than “now” to share the best of who you are.
Relaxation techniques: Try these steps to reduce stress
Relaxation techniques are a great way to help with stress management. Relaxation isn’t only about peace of mind or enjoying a hobby. Relaxation is a process that decreases the effects of stress on your mind and body. Relaxation techniques can help you cope with everyday stress and with stress related to various health problems, such as heart disease and pain.
Whether your stress is spiraling out of control or you’ve already got it tamed, you can benefit from learning relaxation techniques. Learning basic relaxation techniques is easy. Relaxation techniques also are often free or low cost, pose little risk, and can be done nearly anywhere.
Explore these simple relaxation techniques and get started on de-stressing your life and improving your health.
The benefits of relaxation techniques
When faced with numerous responsibilities and tasks or the demands of an illness, relaxation techniques may not be a priority in your life. But that means you might miss out on the health benefits of relaxation.
Practicing relaxation techniques can have many benefits, including:
Slowing heart rate
Lowering blood pressure
Slowing your breathing rate
Maintaining normal blood sugar levels
Reducing activity of stress hormones
Increasing blood flow to major muscles
Reducing muscle tension and chronic pain
Improving concentration and mood
Improving sleep quality
Reducing anger and frustration
Boosting confidence to handle problems
To get the most benefit, use relaxation techniques along with other positive coping methods, such as thinking positively, finding humor, problem-solving, managing time, exercising, getting enough sleep, and reaching out to supportive family and friends.
Types of relaxation techniques
Health professionals such as complementary health practitioners, doctors and psychotherapists can teach various relaxation techniques. But if you prefer, you can also learn some relaxation techniques on your own.
In general, relaxation techniques involve refocusing your attention on something calming and increasing awareness of your body. It doesn’t matter which relaxation technique you choose. What matters is that you try to practice relaxation regularly to reap its benefits.
Types of relaxation techniques include:
Autogenic relaxation. Autogenic means something that comes from within you. In this relaxation technique, you use both visual imagery and body awareness to reduce stress.
You repeat words or suggestions in your mind that may help you relax and reduce muscle tension. For example, you may imagine a peaceful setting and then focus on controlled, relaxing breathing, slowing your heart rate, or feeling different physical sensations, such as relaxing each arm or leg one by one.
Progressive muscle relaxation. In this relaxation technique, you focus on slowly tensing and then relaxing each muscle group.
This can help you focus on the difference between muscle tension and relaxation. You can become more aware of physical sensations.
In one method of progressive muscle relaxation, you start by tensing and relaxing the muscles in your toes and progressively working your way up to your neck and head. You can also start with your head and neck and work down to your toes. Tense your muscles for about five seconds and then relax for 30 seconds, and repeat.
Visualization. In this relaxation technique, you may form mental images to take a visual journey to a peaceful, calming place or situation.
To relax using visualization, try to incorporate as many senses as you can, including smell, sight, sound and touch. If you imagine relaxing at the ocean, for instance, think about the smell of salt water, the sound of crashing waves and the warmth of the sun on your body.
You may want to close your eyes, sit in a quiet spot, loosen any tight clothing, and concentrate on your breathing. Aim to focus on the present and think positive thoughts.
Other relaxation techniques may include:
Music and art therapy
Relaxation techniques take practice
As you learn relaxation techniques, you can become more aware of muscle tension and other physical sensations of stress. Once you know what the stress response feels like, you can make a conscious effort to practice a relaxation technique the moment you start to feel stress symptoms. This can prevent stress from spiraling out of control.
Remember that relaxation techniques are skills. As with any skill, your ability to relax improves with practice. Be patient with yourself. Don’t let your effort to practice relaxation techniques become yet another stressor.
If one relaxation technique doesn’t work for you, try another technique. If none of your efforts at stress reduction seems to work, talk to your doctor about other options.
Also, bear in mind that some people, especially those with serious psychological issues and a history of abuse, may experience feelings of emotional discomfort during some relaxation techniques. Although this is rare, if you experience emotional discomfort during relaxation techniques, stop what you’re doing and consider talking to your doctor or mental health provider.
“He who opens a school door, closes a prison. “ – Victor Hugo
“In Peace and with a tranquil Heart I will both lie down and sleep. For You alone, O Lord, make me dwell in safety and confident Trust.” – Psalms 4:8
There is no greater wealth in this World, than finding Peace of Mind, the Birth of our Sacred Reality. The Beauty of such awareness becomes like a garment to wear. The Majesty of this moment of knowing is so touching in bringing us closer to God.
In Peace our Hearts are taken to Heaven and we connect with our Creator. God gives us the Wisdom to walk in another Dimension, in the World of Love.
With Peace in our Heart we walk out of our Dreams, into such Beauty that it leaves us breathless.
And as we bask in golden rays of Enlightenment, we come to cherish Life for the amazing Blessing that it is.
Peace of mind gives us understanding and reveals our purpose in Life – to bring us closer to God.
Peace of mind is the very best thing enjoyed by Human Beings. Even the miracles of modern medicine can only sustain Life, not uplift it.
Let us find our Promised rest, and set our Hearts at liberty. Feel as though you are floating on the Ocean Blue with waves calm and gentle too, and no fear of what lies below, with Peace and Serenity in your Sacred Soul.
See God’s Glorious Sky at night, with His Heavens all alight and become aware that YOU are part of it all. Our Universe is a great expanse of Earth and wind and sky aglow in Beauty no one can deny. And you are the most Beautiful Creation beneath our Heavenly Sky.
Every person is an amazing Creation of God. Every person is a Precious Child of God. . My Dear Friend, you deserve Happiness and Love. Look for the Beauty all around, and look within. Our World is shining with Light and alive with the Creation of our Lord. Our brief Being happens only once. Cherish every single moment on our truly Beautiful planet.
Prayer has the real Power to reveal and heal and restore your Life and your Love. And Love, over Time, will calm and alter our senses according to the rhythm of the Sacred melody, this is the Beautiful Song of Life.
The memory of all we have ever truly Loved shall never fade. Love is all that is truly left to give to those we leave behind.
What we know before we are born, we can truly rediscover while we are Living – all we need is LOVE.
Life isn’t perfect, but some moments find the Sun rising, while it is setting in our Hearts.
“Life is like a piano; white keys represent Happiness, black keys represent sadness. But remember that on the Journey of Life, black keys also make up music.” – B. Y. English
Yes, Love endures, beyond every moment of Time.
The Song of Life teaches us that when we are Happy, we enjoy the music, but when we are sad, we understand the lyrics.
Pray. And then, go slay the day.
And please remember, it is True that everything God will do, He will do for you. Just ask.
May the Lord inspire you and bring Joy to your precious Heart and fulfill His Sacred Purpose for you.
Dreams allow your Mind to travel out of your Body and return Home, to cleanse the Spirit and bring back into your Being a pure Cosmic Life Force. Our Dreams restore balance and clarity and align our will to the coming day.
Flowers will whisper and the Trees will shout. And the Story of Life will be found in the Leaves gathered in clusters of Golden Glory upon the Sacred Ground, while the wind carries Worlds of Words and Wisdom that can be read and admired by the amazing scenery.
No one can possibly utter the words that even hope to evoke the real Beauty of Life.
Look around you. You are receiving answers to your questions in every moment of the day.
This celebration of Life as the work of Art that it is, will lead us to the realization of our Eternal Majesty and Wonder.
“Wisdom is sold in the desolate market where no one comes to buy.” – William Blake
Be aware of every thing of Beauty all around you.
Why does it still feel like yesterday?
Cry. Forgive. Learn. Move on. Let your tears water the seeds of your future Happiness.
Nature is a fountain of Beautiful exposition, displaying many of God’s Masterpieces.
In the Natural World we find the greatest poetry ever written, lyrics sung by the most Beautiful voices, the stunningly Beautiful Birds of God’s Magnificent Sky, leading us onward with such Redemption.
Thank you for the Kindness you share. The Beautiful Music of such moments in Life change us all with your Kind Soul.
May the Lord inspire you, and bring Joy to your Heart and fulfill His Purpose for you.
John is a fervent Star Wars fan and has devoted much of his adult life to attending Star Wars conventions dressed as a storm trooper, and contributing to Star Wars websites. He keeps a particularly close eye on the main “Star Wars” entry in Wikipedia to weed out factual errors and cleanse it from what he calls “Light Side of the Force ideological bias.” John’s pride and joy is his collection of nearly 500 Star Wars action figures, including three design concept ones used in film production. It is not merely a toy collection, he explains, but a way of exploring the meaning of life:
The Star Wars narrative contains all the major motifs of classic literature, and the action figures give reality to them. How I place figures together on the shelf will evoke different thematic tensions based on their respective personas. When I pair Han Solo with Greedo, that displays a completely different light-side dark-side dichotomy than when pairing Hans Solo with, say, General Grievous.
While some people find meaning through religion or acquiring wealth, John says that he finds Star Wars action figures to be a more flexible and organic expression of life’s relentless struggles and how we meet them. John’s wife tolerates his collection of action figures, but thinks it is a little too intense: “I feel like I’m surrounded by 500 tiny warriors poised for battle; I can think of more soothing decorations to place around the apartment.”
John’s action figure hobby is his way of addressing the notion of the meaning of life. This fundamental of all philosophical questions comes in a variety of forms:
Does life have a purpose?
What kind of life is worth living?
How can I overcome despair?
How can I achieve happiness?
Why do I exist?
Why should I exist?
Do my life activities have any lasting value?
Each of these questions focuses on a unique point. The first, for example, asks whether there is an over-arching design or goal to Human existence that might clarify our place in the grand scheme of things. The second asks whether some approaches to life are better than others. All of the above questions, though, presume that something’s not right with life as we currently experience it, and we’d like a solution to the problem.
Not everyone is plagued by questions of life’s meaning, and a good test for determining the grip that this has on you personally was suggested by German philosopher Frederick Nietzsche (1844-1900). In ancient times, philosophers from many cultures around the globe entertained a concept called the Eternal return. On this view, the universe that we live in now is just one in an endless series of universes that occurs one right after another, each being identical with the others, right down to the tiniest detail.
With our present Universe, there are fixed laws of Nature that determine how it unfolds, including everything about my own personal existence, such as how tall I am, who I married, the job that I have, and every word I ever uttered. Someday this universe will be destroyed by cosmic forces, and from its ashes a new universe will be formed. It too will be shaped by exactly the same laws of nature, and thus all events will unfold in exactly the same way, including my own life. This cycle of universes will continue again and again, forever. Whether you believe the theory of the eternal return is not important. What Nietzsche asks, though, is how you would feel if it was true, and for eternity you would be reliving the exact same events in your life, over and over, in each successive universe. If you would be OK with that, then likely you are not especially bothered by problems of life’s meaning. You are happy with this life, and you would be content living the identical life over and over. However, if the notion of the eternal return sounds like a nightmare to you, then maybe you have serious issues with the meaning of life as you experience it right now.
Philosophers are not the only ones interested in questions about life’s meaning. Psychological studies tell us that happiness declines in our 20s and returns around age 50. That’s a long period of personal struggle for each of us, and today’s self-help industry has jumped in to address our problems. While many of these involve specific concerns, such as relationship issues or alcohol dependence, others are more general in nature. A mid-life crisis or a “Spiritual” crisis, for example, will often involve larger questions of purpose and fulfillment. Philosophical discussions of the meaning of Life are not meant to compete with self-help therapies. The main appeal of philosophy’s contributions to this issue rests in the puzzle itself: here is a timeless problem that touches the core of Human existence. What exactly is behind the problem and which, if any, of the standard solutions are plausible?
In this chapter we will look at the more famous problems and proposed solutions regarding life’s meaning that have attracted the interest of philosophers over the millennia. Many of the solutions come from ancient traditions, both religious and nonreligious. To get a complete picture of their approaches to life’s meaning, we would need to immerse ourselves in all the particulars of those traditions and the precisely defined lifestyles that they recommend. But the best we can do here is consider some dominant themes of these traditions, along with some common criticisms of them. The criticisms we will look at are not refutations of those traditions, and advocates of those traditions have responses to them. Rather, the critiques serve more to help define their limits rather than to simply dismiss them.
LIFE’S CHRONIC AILMENTS
Preoccupied with our own private problems, it is easy for us to forget that for at least 100,000 years Human beings just like us have been on this planet, undoubtedly wrestling with their own issues of happiness and contentment. It should be no surprise that, as soon as writing was invented, ancient people inscribed their struggles to find life’s meaning. Their accounts do not typically begin “Today I had a really bad day”. Rather, writers embedded their insights into mythological narratives, the popular writing genre of the time. Four ancient discussions are especially exceptional because of their insight and influence, and each describes a particular obstacle that stands in the way of us having a meaningful life.
Gilgamesh and Death
One of the world’s oldest surviving stories is the Epic of Gilgamesh, composed about 4,000 years ago in Mesopotamia. Gilgamesh, a brave and heroic king, just witnessed the death of his close friend and became distressed with the prospect that he too would someday die. There has got to be some cure for death, he thought, and so he set out on a journey to discover it. Everyone he encountered on his travels, even animals, tried to discourage him from pursuing his plan, but he pressed on all the same. He then found a famous man named Utnapishtim who had himself achieved immortality. Utnapishtim was the Mesopotamian Noah who survived the great flood. Warned by a goddess of the forthcoming deluge, Utnapishtim built a ship to save himself and his family, and he was granted immortality as a reward for his efforts.
Gilgamesh was shocked when he first set his eyes on Utnapishtim, who, while immortal, continued to age. The old man was now so decrepit that he could barely move. Gilgamesh nevertheless asked for advice and Utnapishtim offered a suggestion: Gilgamesh could conquer death by staying awake for seven nights straight. Gilgamesh accepted the challenge, but, sadly, fell asleep as soon as he sat down. When awakened, he was prepared to return home without success. Utnapishtim’s wife then urged the old man to tell Gilgamesh about a secret cure for death: at the bottom of the ocean there’s a spiky plant that brings endless youth to anyone who eats it.
Gilgamesh ran to the ocean, and, with rocks tied to his feet, jumped in and sank to the bottom. He grabbed the plant, untied the rocks and floated back to the surface. Plant in hand, he joyfully set out on his return journey and when almost home he stopped to wash himself off in a stream, first placing the plant on the bank. While bathing, though, an old snake slithered up to the plant, ate it, and immediately became young. It then slid away. Gilgamesh’s one chance at becoming immortal was thus ruined. He arrived home in a state of depression, and, despite the efforts of his friends to cheer him up, he remained inconsolable.
There are two morals of this story. The first and obvious one is that, as strongly as we desire to live forever, the inevitable truth is that we will all die. Given the choice, virtually all of us would jump at the chance to be immortal, and the fact that we cannot creates a dark cloud over life’s meaning. German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) expresses it like this:
A man finds himself, to his great astonishment, suddenly existing, after thousands and thousands of years of non-existence: he lives for a little while; and then, again, comes an equally long period when he must exist no more. The heart rebels against this, and feels that it cannot be true.
The second moral is that we cannot easily accept our deaths and we may do some crazy things to cheat the grim reaper. While the epic of Gilgamesh is just a myth, this second moral has played out countless times in the real world. In ancient China, some religious believers devoted themselves to conquering death through the strangest of techniques. One involved drinking chemical concoctions which would supposedly balance out the forces within the Human body and thereby obstruct the process of dying. Ironically, many believers poisoned themselves to death through these experiments. Another technique involved holding one’s breath for longer and longer periods of time.
Eventually the believer would not need to breathe at all, and thereby become immortal. Today, there are organizations devoted to achieving physical immortality. Some recommend taking as many as 200 nutritional supplements a day. Others place hope in biological advances that will reverse the natural deterioration of human cells. Still others look forward to the day when our minds can become digitized, essentially making computerized versions of our present brain processes.
What should we think about these efforts to avoid dying? One of the more notable philosophical discussions of death is by German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). Death, according to Heidegger, is not really an event that happens to me, since it only involves the termination of all possible experiences that I might have. After all, it is impossible for me to experience my own death. Rather than thinking of death as an episode that takes place at the tail end of my life, I should instead view it as an integral part of who I am right now, and during each moment of my life in the future. I continually aim towards death and, even when I feel healthy, in a fundamental way I am really terminally ill. He writes, “Death is something that stands before us, something impending.” He encapsulates this insight in the phrase “being-towards-death”. It is like playing a game such as soccer where, embedded in every moment, there is the idea that time is running out. So, Heidegger says, if I ignore my persistent movement towards death, or resist it as Gilgamesh did, I am only deceiving myself and living in a substandard world of make-believe. By contrast, a proper understanding of death clearly lays down the basic rules of the game of life and thereby gives life form and purpose.
If I could continually think of myself as on the path towards death as Heidegger suggests, that might help me accept my mortality. But can I actually do this? Maybe not: while my body is designed to die, my mind seems to be hardwired to think that I am immortal, and there’s little that I can do to resist that feeling. For one thing, the natural instinct to survive compels me to resist death at almost all costs, and this is something that I share with creatures in the animal world. For another, I cannot psychologically conceive of the future without secretly injecting myself into it. Even if I try to picture the world a thousand years down the road, I am still there as a ghostly spectator to the events I am imagining.
According to one neurological study, our brains have a built-in death-denial mechanism that can even be detected in brain scans. In this study, if I am presented with video images relating to the death of other people, I will believe that the threat of death to those people is reliable. However, if I am presented with similar video images relating to my own death, I will find the threat of death to be unreliable, and I will not believe that it could happen to me (Dor-Ziderman, “Prediction-Based Neural Mechanisms”). Thus, whether I like it or not, I am inherently resistant to the idea of my non-existence. My natural human attitude towards death, then, may be to assume that I am immortal, and, at the same time, be horrified when I look in the mirror and see my body disintegrating before my eyes. So, the desire for immortality and its accompanying despair, like Gilgamesh experienced, may simply be part of life.
Sisyphus and Futility
In Homer’s Odyssey, the adventurous hero Odysseus stops by Hades, the dwelling place of the dead, to chat with deceased friends. While there, he sees legendary people who are being punished for evils they committed when alive. There’s one fellow whose body is stretched out over a nine-acre area. Lying helplessly, two vultures pick at his liver; he swats them to shoo them away, but they keep returning. Another fellow is parched with thirst, but cannot succeed in reaching water. Wading in a lake up to his chin, whenever he stoops down to drink, it immediately dries up leaving only dusty ground. He sees succulent fruit trees above him, but as soon as he reaches for their produce the wind sweeps the branches into the clouds.
Then there is Sisyphus, a deceitful king who tricked the god of death and stayed alive longer than he should have. He finally died and went to Hades, but the punishment for his trickery was not a pleasant one. Day after day he pushes a huge stone up a hill, but, always losing energy as he nears the top, he lets it go and it rolls back down. Homer describes the scene here:
I saw Sisyphus at his endless task raising his gigantic stone with both his hands. With hands and feet he tried to roll it up to the top of the hill, but always, just before he could roll it over onto the other side, its weight would be too much for him, and, without pity, the stone would come thundering down again onto the plain below. Then he would begin trying to push it up hill again, and the sweat ran off him and steam rose from his head. [Odyssey, Book 11]
All three of these scenes from Hades depict people trapped into performing futile tasks: swatting vultures, stooping to drink, pushing a bolder. It is the image of Sisyphus, though, that has had the most lasting impact, and for nearly 3,000 years writers have used him as a symbol for the emptiness of life’s endeavors.
Sisyphus’s fate is chillingly similar to the assembly line jobs that workers face throughout the world. Jill works in a lawnmower manufacturing plant, and her job is to bolt lawnmower blades onto motors. She has thirty seconds to line up the pieces and attach them together. As soon as one is done, another follows on its heels. To reduce monotony, the factory rotates Jill and other employees from one work station to another, but, after a few minutes, the routine kicks in. Jill likes her co-workers and has no complaints against her supervisor. Still, at the end of the day, she feels that she may as well have been pushing a boulder up a hill. It is not just assembly line jobs that carry a sense of tedious futility. Accountants, teachers, doctors, and most skilled workers face early burnout. Surveys commonly show that about 70% of workers dislike or downright hate their jobs, much of which owes to grinding and pointless routines. What we do in our spare time is often no more rewarding. A good portion of the day is spent in monotonous domestic chores, cleaning, driving to and fro, shopping, personal hygiene. Year after year, this seem as futile as assembling lawnmower blades.
French philosopher Albert Camus (1913-1960) believed that the story of Sisyphus had another symbolic message. Yes, many of life’s specific tasks certainly feel futile, but what is more discouraging is that the sum of a person’s life efforts may seem pointless. Camus called this the absurdity of life. Human life, he argued, cannot be neatly dissected and understood by human reason in the same way that scientists might successfully analyze and understand chemical reactions. We strive to be happy, but instead are trapped in a life of futile efforts. As much as we try to make sense of it and solve the problem, we can’t, and the sober reality of things simply does not live up to our optimistic expectations. The problem is so bad that it might drive some to suicide. So, Sisyphus represents the overwhelming struggle that we each have in overcoming a pointless life. But Camus is not content to let the issue rest with despair. Instead, he recommends that we revolt against the apparent pointlessness of life, accept our condition as limited as it is, and in that find happiness. Sisyphus should embrace his boulder-pushing task, where the value rests in his effort, not in what he achieves. As Camus states it, “The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart. We must imagine Sisyphus happy.” Thus, while I may never be able to rationally explain the purpose behind my tedious life, I should nonetheless welcome the life that I have, and create meaning for myself through my positive outlook.
But is Camus’s recommendation as easily achievable as he suggests? That is, through sheer willpower can we really make ourselves happy despite life’s fruitlessness? The problem may be resistant to a simple attitude adjustment, as zoo keepers have discovered in their experience with the mental well-being of gorillas. For decades gorillas were kept in controlled enclosures with fixed routines like feeding schedules. While their basic needs were being met, the gorillas were bored and depressed. Zoologists then discovered that gorillas needed complex tasks to challenge them throughout the day and keep their mental energies peaked. Using a technique called “environmental enrichment”, caretakers then started regularly altering the gorillas’ routines by introducing different climbing equipment and scattering their food around their enclosures for the gorillas to forage.
By altering the gorillas’ environment in the right way, they became happier. Applying this lesson to human happiness, we might look for the kinds of challenging tasks that spark our interests throughout the day. We might need shorter and more varied work days; we might need more direct involvement with growing and preparing food; we might need the opportunity to explore new surroundings through travel; we might need to break free of overcrowded urban settings. In the end, we might find that humans were designed to be content in tiny hunter-gatherer tribal groups, which was the condition in which the human species first evolved. Modern industrial life for humans, then, may be like what unenriched zoo captivity is for gorillas. Its inherent design creates a sense of futility where life is absurd with no real solution. Like Sisyphus, then, we unendingly push a boulder to no purpose.
Boethius and Cosmic Insignificance
In the comedy film Monty Python’s The Meaning of Life, a man in a pink suit steps out of a refrigerator and tries to comfort a woman who is despairing about her significance in life. He breaks into a song about how enormous the galaxy is, containing a hundred billion stars over a distance of a hundred thousand light-years from side to side. The Milky Way itself, he explains, is only one of hundreds of billions of galaxies in the ever-expanding universe. He concludes,
So remember when you’re feeling very small and insecure,
How amazingly unlikely is your birth;
And pray that there’s intelligent life somewhere up in space,
Because there’s bugger all down here on earth.
The man climbs back into the refrigerator and closes the door. The joke is that the refrigerator man’s advice would serve more to intensify the woman’s despair rather than alleviate it. If you want to feel significant in life, it is best to avoid thinking of yourself as a mere dot within a colossal universe. Nevertheless, for millennia people have been agonizing over a sense of cosmic insignificance in the face of the universe’s vastness. Even without the aid of modern astronomical telescopes that can peer into distant galaxies, people in ancient times looked up at the stars and were overwhelmed by their sense of smallness. One of the earliest records of this is from the Book of Psalms in the Hebrew Bible: “When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place, what is humankind that you are mindful of them, human beings that you care for them?” (8:3-4).
One of the most disturbing ancient discussions of the sense of cosmic insignificance is that by the Roman philosopher Boethius (480–525 BCE). His personal story is a sad one. Born into a wealthy family, Boethius was an important diplomat within the Roman Empire, but a political misunderstanding turned the Emperor against him and, at the young age of 35, he was sentenced to death for treason. While awaiting execution in his prison cell, he reflected on everything that he would miss in life because of this injustice. In this state of anguish, he composed a work titled The Consolation of Philosophy. It consists of a dialogue between himself and an imaginary person he calls “Lady Philosophy,” who comforts him with words of wisdom during his final days. Boethius’s problem, she informs him, is that he is too attached to earthly things, especially literary fame, and it would help if he reflected on his true place in the cosmos. She explains that the size of the earth is only a speck compared to the heavens, that most of the earth is uninhabitable, that human societies are scattered remotely. It is not just cosmic space that dwarfs human achievements, she continues, but also cosmic time. Even if Boethius does gain some temporary fame during his life, that would be absolutely nothing when compared with the eternity of time.
The lesson that we learn from Lady Philosophy is that, like Boethius, each of us is isolated within the limitless space and time of the cosmos, with no hope of making any meaningful or lasting impact. For someone like Boethius who is approaching death, maybe this will be a little consoling. So what if you are about to die: in the larger scheme of things your life does not amount to much anyway. But, for the rest of us who are not facing imminent death and have normal hopes and dreams, the brute reality of cosmic insignificance can be discouraging. Why should I strive for anything if I am a mere imperceptible twitch within the infinite body of the cosmos?
Contemporary French philosopher Paul Ricoeur (1913–2005) offered a solution to this problem of cosmic insignificance. He writes, “On a cosmic scale, our life is insignificant, yet this brief period when we appear in the world is the time in which all meaningful questions arise.” Yes, the grandeur of the cosmos does make our life’s efforts irrelevant by comparison, but we nevertheless find meaning within the microscopic components of our lives through the creation of human history. That is, while I cannot grasp my personal significance within the incomprehensible cosmic timeline, I can still find my spot within American history, for example, and even more so within my family history. I know how this country was founded, how my ancestors got here, what my grandparents and parents did with their lives, and how all this has shaped me. Thus, we invent a historical narrative of our human past, which is larger than our individual selves, yet much smaller and more manageable than cosmic space and time. In Ricoeur’s words, “historical time is like a bridge thrown over the chasm which separates cosmic time from lived time.”
Does Ricoeur successfully solve the problem of cosmic insignificance? Without question, my personal knowledge of history does help clarify who I am and how I fit into the world around me. Thus, when I think about my spot within human history, I do not feel like an isolated being adrift in an unfathomable cosmic ocean. But while this may temporarily distract me from my sense of cosmic insignificance, it does nothing to change the reality of the limitless cosmos. When I reflect on human history, I may feel at home, but the instant that I gaze at the stars, all human history itself seems miniscule by comparison. The entire human legacy is confined to an infinitesimally small region of space for an infinitesimally small period of time, just as Lady Philosophy explained to Boetheus. Try as I might to keep my focus on human history, the stars return each night to remind me once again of my true limited place within the cosmos, and the sense of cosmic insignificance returns.
Job and Suffering
The story of Job from the Hebrew Bible explores another challenge to the meaning of life. Job was not obsessed with death like Gilgamesh, discouraged by futility like Sisyphus, or overwhelmed with insignificance like Boethius. In fact, at the outset of the story he’s happy. Job is a wealthy and morally decent herdsman with a loving family, and he owns a large stock of sheep, oxen, camels, and donkeys. Then everything changes for the worse. His animals are stolen, his servants are burnt to death by fire from the sky and, worst of all, his children are killed in a tornado. Job himself is infected with itchy skin boils, which he scratches with a broken piece of pottery. In a display of sorrow, he rips his clothes and shaves his head. Three friends stop by for a visit and at first do not even recognize Job because he is so disfigured from his illness. For a week they sit next to him without speaking, then, breaking the silence, Job says “I wish I was born dead!” He cannot understand why God would do this to him, and he accuses God of being his tormenter. His friends try to explain God’s role in his misfortunes. One friend argues that people suffer when they forget God and, so, Job must have abandoned God at some point in his life. Another argues that people suffer when they commit some moral offense, and no one can fully know all the things that God finds evil. So, in spite of Job’s protests of being morally blameless, he nevertheless must have committed some offense that is not immediately apparent. Job insists, though, that he did nothing wrong. Finally, God himself appears in a thunderstorm and sets the record straight: God is infinitely great, Job is virtually insignificant and, so, Job has no right to complain.
The problem raised in the story of Job is how we explain human suffering. While all suffering is inherently bad, it is only a specific type of misery that casts a serious shadow over the meaning of life. Suppose I pick up a hammer and intentionally hit myself on the foot with it. The explanation of my suffering is clear and there is no moral mystery to be solved: I have no one to blame but my foolish self. This is a rule of life that I understand and accept, no matter how miserable I make myself. Suffering of this sort, then, poses no real threat to a meaningful life. It may not even be so bad if you pick up a hammer and intentionally hit my foot with it, so long as you are arrested and convicted of assault. Even though I am in pain, I can be consoled by the fact that justice has been done and you are held accountable for my suffering. So, even unjustified suffering like this will not necessarily make my life meaningless. The real problem occurs when the suffering exhibits two specific features, namely, it is both unprovoked and unresolved, which is exactly what Job faced. Despite his friends’ accusations, Job was convinced that he did nothing to deserve his suffering; from his perspective, it was completely unprovoked. It was also unresolved since, when his livestock was stolen, the bad guys got away with it. If they had been arrested and forced to compensate Job for his losses, then perhaps Job could have accepted the situation and moved on. Job was not so lucky. Similarly, when his children were killed, he could not just replace his old family with a new one. He also could receive no compensation that would counterbalance his agonizing illness.
With no resolution to these unprovoked tragedies, Job is left wondering why they happened. Part of Human nature is to seek out the hidden causes of things and resolve mysteries. When tragedy strikes us through no fault of our own, we are inclined to find some cause and, more importantly, cast blame on that cause when we can. This is one reason why lawsuits are so common. If I trip over a curb, it is the city’s fault for placing it where they did, and I sue them. If I fall off a ladder, it is the ladder company’s fault for not warning me about possible dangers, and I sue them. If Job had the chance, he might have sued his local police for not catching the thieves, or sued the National Weather Service for not forewarning him of the tornado. But the more irrational our accusations are, the less comfort we can take in them, and, in our more clear-headed moments, we are still left wondering why these tragedies happened. When we fail in our attempts to find blame with human causes for our misery, many people, like Job, cast blame on divine causes. An all-powerful God should protect me from unprovoked suffering, and if he does not, then he is to blame. In Job’s words, God is our tormentor.
Nietzsche was a victim of chronic illness and, like Job, knew firsthand what it is like to experience unprovoked and unresolved suffering. In such a condition, he said, resentment and “the desire and thirst for revenge” is our most natural inclination (Ecce Homo). It becomes all-consuming, everything wounds us and even our memories become gathering wounds. However, Nietzsche continues, there is a remedy to this sense of resentment, which is a kind of fatalism where you just lay down, accept your condition, and not even wish to be different.
Job’s story ends with a resolution of the sort that Nietzsche describes. Job directly witnesses God’s vastness and then grasps the enormous gulf between the two of them; the very experience of divine power humbles him to accept his situation. But this is a storybook ending, since most believers will not have a direct experience of God’s greatness to force them in line. Imagine that you lost a relative in a tornado and you put the blame on God. In my efforts to comfort you I said, “I know this is painful for you, but don’t be discouraged. God is infinitely great and you are by comparison insignificant; this is what we learn from the story of Job.” This would offend you more than it would console you. In essence, this attempts to solve Job’s problem of suffering by drawing attention to the problem of cosmic insignificance, and that is not an effective resolution. In the course of our lives, most of us experience tragedies that are unprovoked and unresolved, such as property loss, the death of loved ones, or serious illness. We can surely appreciate Job’s despair when no satisfactory explanation is available.
ANCIENT GREEK SOLUTIONS
Just as these four stubborn problems with the meaning of life were voiced early on in human civilization, so too did the ancient world propose solutions. The theories that they suggested were varied, and we would be hard pressed to find a solution today which wasn’t first entertained back then. The first set of solutions we will look at are from ancient Greece. For a brief period of time, Greek philosophers were in the self-help business and they offered step-by-step methods for achieving happiness. Four approaches were so popular that even today their names are household words: Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skepticism, and Cynicism. We will look at some of their main themes and how successful they are at addressing the problem of life’s meaning.
Epicureanism and Pleasure
Jack, an English professor from a prestigious university, thinks he has cracked the code to happiness. Divorced and in his mid 40’s, he makes a good income at a job that does not require much work. He published a lot earlier in his career, but now he rides on his reputation and gets by doing minimal preparation for the few classes that he is required to teach. In his spare time, he indulges his many cravings. An enthusiast of specialty foods, he is intimately familiar with the menus of every fine restaurant in his area and he regularly attends wine and cheese tasting events. During the day he reads novels, plays tennis, visits art museums, and takes sculpting classes. In the evening he watches foreign films, after which he goes to local jazz clubs. On school breaks he flies to Europe, sampling the cultural offerings there. His passions, though, are not limited to food, art and travel. Jack possesses an animal magnetism that makes him romantically successful. Each semester he invites a new female graduate assistant to be his lover for the duration of the term. While the women know that the affair is only temporary, they happily agree, and even recommend possible partners for his next semester. On his birthday, his former lovers who are still in the area throw him a party. In a word, Jack is what we would call an Epicurean.
The Greek philosopher Epicurus(341-271 BCE) believed that the job of philosophy is to help people attain happiness; a philosophy that does not heal the soul, he argues, is no better than medicine that cannot cure the body. His formula for attaining human happiness is simple: increase pleasure and decrease pain. Personal pleasure is the only thing that we should pursue, and the value of everything we do in life is judged by that standard. The pleasures that Epicurus recommends are precisely the ones that Jack enjoys, but he warns that we should not pursue all pleasures with equal zeal. First, some are physical such as Jack’s romances, and others are mental such as Jack’s love of art; according to Epicurus, the mental ones are more important than the physical ones. Second, some desires are not entirely necessary, such as the desire for luxury food, and we should pursue these with moderation. Third, Epicurus warns us to avoid placing short term desires above long-term ones. For example, if Jack skipped teaching his classes for the short term goal of visiting a museum, then he would likely lose his job and his happy lifestyle would come crashing down.
Is Epicureanism a reasonable path to human happiness? While we all naturally want pleasure, there is something suspicious about a lifestyle that is devoted entirely to its pursuit. Let us grant that Jack is truly happy with his Epicurean existence. There is no telling, though, how long those activities will sustain his interest. Part of the joy he experiences comes from the newness of his activities: a new restaurant, a new art exhibit, a new story plot, a new lover. There are only a finite number of spices to mix into one’s food, though, and eventually even the most unique of Jack’s experiences will take on familiar patterns and become routine. He will be like Sisyphus pushing a gem-encrusted boulder up a hill, a task no less futile than pushing an ordinary rock. Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) discusses this problem and argues that, from the Epicurean perspective, “boredom is the root of all evil” (Either-Or). We busy ourselves throughout the day with pleasurable activities to prevent boredom, but, even so, routine kicks in and we once again find ourselves bored. The Epicurean remedy for this, according to Kierkegaard, is switching up our routine, sort of like crop rotation. Pursue a pleasure for a while, set it aside for another, then return to the first later. Even here, according to Kierkegaard, this superficial lifestyle will prove unsatisfactory.
A second problem with Jack’s Epicurean approach to life is that the happiness he does experience rests on a stroke of good fortune that may easily change. If his university cracks down on his laziness, he will have less leisure time for his hobbies. If his ex-wife sues him for alimony, he will not be able to cover the costs of his activities. As he grows older, young women will be repulsed by his romantic advances. Thus, indulging in pleasure is not a stable road to happiness if it rests on so many factors beyond our control.
Epicurus himself was restrained with the pleasures that he pursued. He lived on a small food diet, avoided luxuries, and strived for self-sufficiency. “The greatest benefit of self-sufficiency,” he argued, “is freedom.” It seems, then, that the founder of this pleasure-indulging lifestyle was far less Epicurean than we might think, and, instead, he grounded his happiness upon a feeling of independence. Thus, pursuing pleasure alone is no guarantee of a meaningful life, which Epicurus himself recognized.
Stoicism and Accepting Fate
Imagine that you are a captured soldier detained in a prisoner of war camp. Your captors, who are not particularly fond of the Geneva Convention, have provided you with grim and sometimes inhumane accommodations. Your cell block is unheated, your bedding is covered with fleas, your meals are unpredictable and, when they are served, the food is often rotten. About once a week you are interrogated by your captors, who psychologically intimidate you and sometimes beat you. You do not know how long your detention will last, or even if you will survive. In these conditions, what could you possibly do to be happy? First, you would have to condition yourself to ignore the physical harshness of your environment. Gathering all your mental strength, you might eventually get used to your cold room, unsanitary bedding and disgusting food. You would then have to accept that you are at the mercy of the unpredictable whims of your captors who can beat you and even kill you as they see fit. Having no expectations at all about circumstances beyond your control, you might eventually be able to carve out some peace of mind. This is precisely the Stoic philosophy for achieving happiness. While life is not always as despairing as a prisoner of war camp, sometimes it really feels that bad, and there is nothing we can do about it. If we place our hopes in pleasures that are beyond our control, we will inevitably be frustrated and unhappy. The moral of the story is that we should learn to accept the life that is fated for us, and never reach beyond that.
One of the great teachers of Stoicism was Epictetus (55–135 C.E.), a former slave who knew first-hand how brutal and unpredictable life could be. He offers a picturesque example to explain the Stoic solution. Think of life as a large banquet with many people sitting around a table waiting to be fed. Starting at one end of the table, serving dishes of food are passed around, and guests take out portions onto their plates. You are near the end of the table and for all you know the serving dishes will be empty by the time they reach you. You should not keep glancing down the table in anticipation, Epictetus advises, but wait patiently for your turn. Better yet, he says, when a serving dish finally arrives, you should just pass it along without taking anything. This is what our attitudes should be toward the things in life that we typically crave but which we can never count on, such as good jobs, a loving family, and luxuries. For this Stoic formula to succeed, we must learn to habitually distance ourselves from things that we desire, even when things are going our way. The goal is to acquire a constant mental state of detachment so that, in the event that circumstances sour, we will not be disappointed.
The Stoic path to happiness seems well suited for prisoners of war, slaves, and the financially destitute. For these people, life’s prospects are so dismal that placing hope beyond themselves will only make matters worse. What about the rest of us, though, who can usually count on good fortune at life’s banquet table? It seems unnecessary to renounce all pleasures. Sometimes I will indeed be disappointed when a serving dish comes around empty. However, contrary to Epictetus’s Stoic recommendation, this may well be counterbalanced by joys I will experience when another serving dish is full. For example, when hunting for a job, I will undoubtedly be disappointed if a company rejects my application, but I can reasonably expect that some company will eventually hire me, and it does not hurt to anticipate that with hope. Epictetus thought that one of life’s biggest disappointments was the death of a loved one. His Stoic recommendation is that we should emotionally distance ourselves from our spouses and children so that, when fate unpredictably tears them away from us, we will not be distressed. Again, contrary to Epictetus’s recommendation, while the death of loved ones is devastating, it is nevertheless counterbalanced by the joy we receive from our attachment to them while they are alive. This is an important joy in life that we would sacrifice if we followed his Stoic advice. Stoicism, then, seems to be an unnecessarily extreme and restricting avenue towards happiness, which we should adopt only as a last resort when things become overwhelmingly dismal.
Skepticism and Doubt
An organization called “The Skeptics Society” is devoted to debunking questionable beliefs, such as those about UFOs, alien abductions, ESP, religious miracles, time travel, and political conspiracy theories. One writer for the society skeptically examined the famed 1947 alien space craft sighting in Roswell, New Mexico. The real event, he explains, was simply a military balloon experiment, which decades later was transformed into a UFO legend. He writes,
Roswell is the world’s most famous, most exhaustively investigated, and most thoroughly debunked UFO claim. It’s far past time for UFOlogists to admit it and move on. Those who hope to discover alien life are going to have to look where the aliens are — which is (if anywhere), somewhere else. Perhaps outer space would be a good place to start. [B.D. Gildenberg “Roswell Explained”]
By exposing the faults in controversial claims such as the Roswell incident, The Skeptics Society hopes to promote critical thinking and proper scientific inquiry. The Society sees itself as following in a long skeptical tradition that began in ancient Greece, particularly the school of Skepticism founded by the philosopher Pyrrho (365–275 BCE).
Pyrrho and his followers held that happiness is achieved through doubt. The sort of happiness that they envisioned was the mental tranquility that we experience when we suspend belief. When we hold extreme views, such as belief that aliens visited Roswell, we experience a mental disturbance, and we risk being pulled from one conviction to another. If the aliens did appear there, what was their mission? If the government knew about the event, why are they covering it up? We quickly become tangled in a web of questions and concerns that do not have good answers. It is not only strange beliefs like this that disrupt us, but any strong conviction upsets our peace of mind when we hold rigidly to it, ranging from political conspiracy theories we unendingly hear in the media, right down to the simple belief that the grass in my yard is green or that the table in my kitchen is round. The solution, according to the skeptics, is to recognize that every belief is subject to doubt. The grass appears green to me because my eyes are constructed a specific way and light shines on it in a specific way. If these factors differed, then the grass would not appear green. So, I should suspend belief about whether the grass really is green. Skeptics argued that I should in fact suspend all beliefs that I hold, including those about the existence of God, external objects, and moral values. By doing so I will free my mind of the conflict that these beliefs produce, achieve mental tranquility, and become happy.
The skeptic is probably right that the more gullible we are, the more we set ourselves up for disappointment. By believing in UFOs, horoscopes or miracle cures, we go against respectable methods of inquiry and invite ridicule. If I persist in my strange beliefs, contrary to strong evidence against them, then I must brainwash myself in thinking that I am right and everyone else is wrong, which then separates me from others. But the skeptic’s larger point is that all beliefs, both strange and normal ones, are vulnerable to attack and should thus be rejected for the advancement of mental tranquility.
There are two problems with this position. First, suppose that the skeptic is right that even our most commonsensical beliefs can be called into question, such as the belief that the table in front of me is round. It is one thing for me to recognize the theoretical problems with that belief, but it is entirely another thing to actually suspend my belief about the table’s roundness, especially when it always appears to me that way. Commonsense beliefs like this may be beyond my control, regardless of how hard I try to suspend them. I am forced to act on the assumption that the table is round every time I place an object onto it or walk around it. Thus, while skepticism may succeed at the theoretical level, it is virtually impossible at a practical level. The second problem is that, even if we could suspend all beliefs, many of life’s events would still make us unhappy. Like Sisyphus, I can still be bored to tears with my assembly line job even if I doubt that the factory actually exists. Like Job, I can still suffer enormously if my family dies in a tornado, even if I doubt whether my family actually exists. We experience many painful emotions independently of our belief convictions, and skepticism has no solution for those.
Cynicism and Defying Convention
Some years ago a music festival was launched called Lollapalooza, which traveled the country attracting crowds of young people. Many of the musical groups were in the crude and abrasive Punk genre, often with instruments out of tune and vocals off pitch. One band included a percussionist who grinded away on a chunk of sheet metal with an industrial disk sander. The festival was so successful that it became a yearly event and non-musical performances were added, including a television-smashing pit. Most bizarre was a circus sideshow in which one performer ate broken glass, another impaled his cheeks with long skewers, and another lifted heavy weights from body piercings. With its notoriety, Lollapalooza became a symbol for a growing youth counterculture that was frustrated with pointless social expectations and rebelled against established values.
Many of our conceptions of human happiness are rooted in traditional social expectations, such as how we should dress, what counts as good music, what we should find entertaining, how we should view authority figures. These expectations are not only restrictive, but often misguided. One solution to the question of life’s meaning is to challenge cherished social conventions, and through this act of defiance awaken a broader appreciation of life’s possibilities. The social rebelliousness of recent youth cultures is in many ways an embodiment of the ancient Greek philosophical school of Cynicism. The aim of that ancient movement was to show contempt for traditional social structures and values, such as power, wealth and social status. By doing so we would rethink the influence that civilization should have on our lives, open ourselves up to a more direct connection to nature, and thereby become “citizens of the cosmos.” Cynicism was more a way of life than an exact philosophical theory, and its defenders were notorious for their shocking behavior.
A case in point is Diogenes of Sinope (c. 410-320 BCE), who lived as an impoverished beggar in protest of the increasingly lavish lifestyles of his peers. As a young man, he was exiled from his hometown for defacing coins, which were symbols of economic power and political authority. When someone asked him how he felt about his exile, he replied, “That was how I became a philosopher, you miserable fool!” Hunting for a place to stay, he took up residence in a large barrel, which quickly became a stereotype for the Cynic’s lifestyle. He would sometimes walk around in broad daylight with a lit lamp, shining it in people’s faces as if to inspect their moral character. There is a famous, though fictitious story that Alexander the Great visited him to express his admiration. “Request anything of me that you like,” Alexander said. Diogenes was sunbathing at the time and replied, “I request that you step to one side since you are blocking the sun.” The great conqueror responded, “If I was not Alexander, I would want to be Diogenes.”
There are three problems with Cynicism’s formula for a happy life. First, the most extreme cynics live like dogs, and for that reason ancient Cynics were called “dog philosophers.” Just as Diogenes lived as a beggar, some social critics today live in homeless conditions and “dumpster dive” for discarded food in trash bins. It is difficult to see how the benefits of the extreme Cynical lifestyle outweigh such self-imposed misery. Second, for more moderate Cynics, what is edgy today becomes the convention of tomorrow. Rebellious perspectives on life quickly become fashionable, even commercially profitable. The immediate impact of Cynicism in the ancient world was that writers incorporated its biting views of society into literary satire. This made for more interesting literature of the time, but its shock value eventually became less shocking. Today, much of Lollapalooza’s rebellious artistic expression, such as body piercings and facial tattoos, is commonplace, and, ironically, their artists have become pioneers of contemporary fashion. That must be discouraging for a true rebel. Third, both extreme and moderate Cynicism are overly negative approaches to life that thrive on publicly dismantling the accomplishments of others. It is hard to see how Cynics could be happy by continually having a chip on their shoulders. Offering an occasional social criticism is one thing, but doing so as a way of life would be demoralizing for the critic, and very annoying for everyone else.
Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skepticism and Cynicism remained popular philosophies of life for centuries, so there is no question that many people did find them personally valuable. Still, we do not find in any of these the magic bullet for destroying the chronic problems of life’s meaning once.
WESTERN RELIGIOUS SOLUTIONS
For thousands of years, religious traditions around the world have taken on the task of explaining the meaning of life. For whatever woes we have, there is some spiritual explanation that aims to redirect us. The dominant religions in Western civilization are Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and among these we find answers to the problem of life’s meaning. All their solutions are just parts of much larger theological systems developed by these traditions, and a fuller understanding of them is the job of religious studies. Nevertheless, within philosophy we can identify some reoccurring themes that address the meaning of life.
One of the more famous stories from both the Jewish Bible and Muslim Koran is that of Abraham, a nomadic herdsman who longed to have children even though his wife was infertile. Monitoring Abraham’s situation, God offered him a deal: if he accepts God as his deity, then his descendants will be as numerous as the stars in the sky. Abraham agreed, he had his children as promised, and ultimately became the father of both the Jewish and Arabic people. While there is not anything uniquely “religious” about the desire to have children, many faith traditions list this as one of their top religious duties: “be fruitful and multiply” as God commands the first humans in the Book of Genesis. Conservative Judaism is a case in point. Unlike other faiths that emphasize life after death, Judaism stresses the world right here and now; as one of their sacred texts states, “Better one hour in repentance and good deeds in this world than all the life in the world to come” (Pirkei Avot). Reproduction is a way of achieving a type of immortality in the present world. I die, but my name, my legacy, and my family history live on through my children.
Medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) argued that God implants instincts in human nature to help guide our conduct on earth, one of which is the drive to procreate. He writes that the rational human creature “has a share of [God’s] Eternal Reason, through which it has a natural inclination to its proper act and end” and among these inclinations are sexual intercourse and education of offspring (Summa Theologica, 2a 91.2, 94.2). A more secular understanding of this crucial urge is that it is the result of blind evolutionary forces which keeps animal species like ours from going extinct. Regardless of whether the desire to procreate originates from God or blind evolution, though, it is a fact of human nature that when we reach a certain age, we have a compelling desire to have children. When we succeed, we magically gain fulfillment and a larger sense of purpose beyond our individual lives. On the other hand, failing to have children sometimes results in a sense of incompleteness and, in old age, loneliness. To combat this, childless couples often transform their pet dog or cat into surrogate children, and lavish love and attention on them to a degree that others find comical. Sometimes it works, other times it does not. So it seems that nature rewards us when we answer its call to produce offspring, and punishes us when we do not.
While procreation might very well give us a purpose beyond our individual selves, is it a cure-all for the problems of life’s meaning? Perhaps not for two reasons. First, having children invites a new set of miseries for parents. There is the need to cut back on our most cherished private leisure activities to make time for the exhausting task of child-rearing. There are the constant worries about physical dangers to our children, from poorly designed highchairs to automobile accidents. There is the endless battle to block the bad influences of sex, drugs and violence in the media and schools. There are the inevitable clashes with children during the terrible twos, the rebellious teens, and all years in between. We also suffer along with our children when they are harmed or upset, as reflected in a recent expression that parents are only as happy as their saddest child. Marriages often suffer as a direct result of children, sometimes because of a decline in marital intimacy as privacy becomes impossible, other times because of fights over who should do which child-rearing chores. When things end in divorce, the presence of children can lead to vicious and all-consuming custody battles.
These are problems that impact both men and women. For women, though, there is an additional burden of having children. French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) argued that the obligation to reproduce is at least partially responsible for the patriarchal oppression of women. She writes,
One of the most basic problems of woman, as we have seen, is the reconciliation of her reproductive role and her part in productive labor. The fundamental part that from the beginning of history doomed woman to domestic work and prevented her taking part in the shaping of the world was her enslavement to the generative function. [The Second Sex, 1953, p. 117]
In the animal world, she explains, it is different since there is a “physiological and seasonal rhythm” to reproduction that preserves the female’s strength during the off season. Not so with human females, since nature has set no limits on the number of pregnancies a woman might have between puberty and menopause. In this sense, she says, women are biologically doomed. For all these reasons, it should come as no surprise that Epicurus advised against having children because it creates more pain than pleasure. In effect, having children involves exchanging Sisyphus’s problem of futility for Job’s problem of suffering.
Second, there are limits to how procreation solves Gilgamesh’s problem of human mortality. It is an exaggeration to say that we gain immortality through our children who will outlive us by perhaps only 25 years. Our grandchildren might extend this by another 25. Generations beyond that, though, will consist of people that we will never know, and who will have no memories of us apart from what is conveyed in some old photos. Your genes may live on through your descendants, but they will become so diluted through successive generations that, even if your hair and eye color get passed down, nothing of your personality will survive. The illusory nature of this kind of immortality may become more evident when our children leave the nest, take on lives of their own and become almost strangers to us. We are once again on our own to find meaning, this time, though, while our health declines and our friends die one after the other. Whether seen from a religious or non-religious perspective, having children may be more like a bait and switch in our life’s quest for meaning.
Life after Death
With the limited success of procreation as a cure for life’s anguish, religion offers a backup plan: finding meaning in this life through the prospect of immortality in the next. Most faith traditions present some account of life after death. While the details vary, the core notion is that the essential part of my conscious identity survives the death of my body in a more perfect state of existence. I might exist in a three-dimensional form that resembles my current shape, but constructed from a more flawless substance. Alternatively, I might exist as a purely spiritual thing that takes up no three-dimensional space. In either case, the real me lives on after my body dies.
With a single blow, the idea of life after death attacks all four classic problems of life’s meaning. Most obvious is its solution to Gilgamesh’s problem of mortality. The fact is that we never really do die. Upon the death of my body, my true self is released from its physical shackles and continues in another realm. I may not at first enthusiastically embrace the idea of physical death, which is understandable, like my reluctance to throw away an old comfortable pair of jeans for a new pair. But when I fully grasp that my real self will be preserved through this transformation, my worries about death should fade. Life after death also addresses Sisyphus’s problem of life’s pointlessness. My life’s activities may seem futile to me right now, but that is because the physical world that I currently live in is imperfect. My efforts on earth are only a preparation for the world to come, and as long as I keep that in mind, life right now has a very clear and important point. Next, life after death addresses the problem of cosmic insignificance. While right now I may be a mere speck in comparison to the unfathomable cosmos, ultimately the cosmos itself will die out while I will live on for eternity in heaven. From that perspective, it is the cosmos that will then appear to be a mere speck in comparison to the infinite duration of my life in the hereafter. Finally, life after death addresses Job’s problem of suffering. If I suffer right now because of a bodily ailment like cancer, I am comforted by the fact that I will have no physical pain in the afterlife. If I suffer now because thieves have stolen my property, I can take comfort in the fact that the scales of justice will be balanced in the afterlife: the bad guys will be punished, and the good guys rewarded. If I suffer now because of the death of a loved one, I am comforted by the knowledge that I will see them shortly in the afterlife. The apostle Paul sums up these benefits of life after death in a single sentence: “if our hope in the Messiah is only for this life, then we are more to be pitied than anyone in the world” (1 Corinthians 15.19).
With such an all-encompassing solution to the problem of life’s meaning, it is no surprise that the idea of life after death has been so uniformly embraced by the world’s religions. What could be wrong with a solution that is so widespread? The first obstacle to the life after death solution concerns how strongly we actually believe in it. Let us set aside the issue of whether an afterlife realm really exists, which is stubbornly resistant to either proof or disproof. The more important issue concerns the level of conviction that the idea holds within us. Suppose that we passed a questionnaire out to all religious believers around the world with these two questions:
On a scale of one to ten, how strong is your conviction that Paris, France exists?
On a scale of one to ten, how strong is your conviction that an afterlife realm exists?
The Paris question would uniformly get a ten, but, even among believers, the afterlife question would not do as well. On a good day, a believer’s conviction might hover around a ten; on a bad day, it might dip down to a one. The idea of an afterlife is the kind of conviction that requires reinforcement on a regular basis, which is precisely what religious institutions do. By contrast, there is no organization devoted to reinforcing our conviction that Paris exists: we believe it without any pep talk from a “Paris Exists” organization. The crucial question is whether a person’s belief in an afterlife is consistently strong enough to counteract the problems of life’s meaning. Sometimes it is, but sometimes it is not.
Suppose that you can get passed this first obstacle and you firmly believe in an afterlife, at least most of the time. The next obstacle is having confidence that you’ll actually get there. While belief in an afterlife may be widespread, paths to getting there are as numerous as the many world’s religions themselves. We must set aside the question of which if any religion is the true path. The more pressing question is how confident you are that you have picked the right one. Do you have nagging doubts that maybe the religious denomination across the street is a better gamble than yours? Further, most religions set out tough requirements for entrance into an afterlife, such as being morally upright, regularly following specific religious rituals, devotion to specific religious founders, earnestly believing a long set of doctrines. Are you sure that you have done everything that is required of you to gain salvation? While you might still enter the afterlife, a serious oversight might send you to hell rather than heaven. Some of history’s most famous religious figures were consumed with worry about whether they were fulfilling God’s expectations. Insecurity about the fine print might burden believers with more unhappiness in this life, rather than relieve the worries that they already have about a meaningful life in the here and now. At best, the hope of life after death will have limited success in giving meaning to life, and, at worst, it may add to our earthly torment.
Furthering God’s Kingdom
During the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Christian philosopher Augustine (354-430) wrote a treatise titled The City of God in which he described two “cities.” On the one hand there is an earthly city, which represents a way of life that is driven by self-love and contempt for God. People of the earthly city are unhappy and experience despair since earthly notions of self-love are so distorted and misguided. On the other, there is a heavenly city which is a way of life that glorifies God and is ultimately achieved in the afterlife. While on earth, followers of the heavenly city live a God-centered life and work to advance God’s kingdom. This defines who they are, and gives a meaning to their lives which followers of the earthly city cannot experience. One Christian denomination that exemplifies this devotion to God’s kingdom is the Latter Day Saints, better known by their nickname the Mormons. Upon leaving high school, every young Mormon man and woman is expected to serve as a missionary for two years, often taking them to the far corners of the world. During this time they abstain from the leisure activities of watching movies, playing sports, and listening to popular music. Their single focus is to spread the message of God and baptize new believers. Through their devotion they become connected with a higher purpose which gives a special meaning to their lives.
Regardless of the denomination, there are several common features that these religious missions exhibit, which make them larger-than-life experiences for believers. First, these are typically group-efforts among a community of believers, rather than simply isolated campaigns of individual people. It is often this connection with a larger group that gives believers a sense of belonging that they would not otherwise have and, thus, enhances their sense of life’s meaning. Second, there is devotion to a firm and sacred set of beliefs about God’s role in human affairs. While theories about the nature and existence of God are a dime a dozen, not just any view of God will do. Leaders within these religious traditions formulate precise doctrines, and believers pledge exclusive devotion to them, thereby rejecting the views of rival religious groups. By embracing these sacred doctrines, believers see themselves as participating in a higher mission from God and not merely participating in routine human-created social activity. Third, participating in this higher mission involves self-sacrifice. Furthering God’s kingdom is no easy task: it is financially costly, time consuming, and mission efforts are commonly met with brutal opposition. Yet, by enduring these hardships, believers feel a special accomplishment when they make progress.
While the notion of “furthering God’s kingdom” is distinctly religious in nature, there are many non-religious groups that similarly try to transform society through some moral or political ideology. Like religious missions, these involve group efforts among like-minded people who are devoted to a specific higher calling and willingly endure hardship. Some of these social causes are preserving the environment, eliminating poverty, defending political freedoms, ending minority oppression, or creating global harmony. Devotees to these secular ideologies often gain a sense of life’s meaning similar to that of their religious counterparts.
Whether religious or secular, there is a serious price to pay when devoting oneself to a higher mission, namely, conformity. For a group to speak with a single voice, individual members must give up much of their private identities and follow the direction of the larger collection. There is little room for dissenting opinions about the precise nature of the higher mission: this is firmly fixed in the group’s sacred doctrines and enforced by their leaders. Many believers are content to uncritically follow the directives of their traditions. Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) argues that this is exactly as it should be. The New Testament “is extremely easy to understand” and if we do grasp it we see that “we would immediately have to act in conformity with it” (Notebook 17.102).
But for other believers, such conformity is not so easy. Nietzsche argues that a “slavish attitude of mind appears as Christian obedience” where the believer “acquires his value by conforming with a certain human scheme which has been once and forever fixed.” This, he argues, makes the person “of a lower species” and “devoid of personality” (Will to Power, 312, 319). Ex-members of conservative religious groups regularly describe how restricting life was for them and how their leaders used various intimidation tactics to keep them in line. Their leaders, in turn, dismiss the disaffected members as mere troublemakers. The clash between the individual and group becomes more serious when the group’s evangelizing tactics are morally questionable, such as launching smear campaigns against rival religious groups. Loyal members comply, outspoken critics are shown the door. While furthering God’s kingdom may help give meaning to the lives of some people, it will be less effective for nonconforming troublemakers.
Our assessment of these Western religious solutions to the problem of life’s meaning must be the same as that of the ancient Greek solutions. Many people undoubtedly do find them personally valuable.
EASTERN RELIGIOUS SOLUTIONS
Religions of Eastern Civilization include Daoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and perhaps a dozen other traditions of varying sizes. Eastern religions have advocated all three of the above Western solutions to life’s meaning with their own regional twists. In addition to these, though, we find solutions grounded in the more unique philosophical elements of the Eastern traditions themselves. Again, it is important to understand that each religion, Eastern or Western, has its own long and elaborate tradition of beliefs and worship practices that give meaning to believers’ lives. We will look at only three highlights here for the Eastern ones.
Daoism and the Way of Nature
The Daoist religion emerged in China about 2,500 years ago, and its principal message is that of the Dao, the Chinese word for “way” or “path”. More precisely, it is the path of nature itself, which creates and guides everything we see. The Daoist solution to life’s meaning is picturesquely presented in a classic tale. One day a prince stopped by to see his cook who was in the process of cutting beef. All of the cook’s motions were like a harmonious ballet as he placed his feet, moved his knees, heaved his shoulders and brought his knife down on the meat. “You have very admirably perfected your art” the prince said. The cook laid down his knife and explained, “I follow the Dao, which is more important than any other skill. Many years ago when I began cutting meat, all I saw was a large chunk of flesh, which I chopped away at. In time I noticed the natural crevices in the meat and, in a spirit-like manner, allowed my knife to glide through them with ease. By doing this I avoided tough ligaments and large bones. An ordinary cook changes his knife every month because he hacks. A good cook changes his every year because he cuts cleanly. I’ve been using this knife now for nineteen years.” The prince responded, “Amazing! By hearing you speak of your craft, I’ve learned how to tend to my life!”
The cook’s message is that we should live in accord with the flow of nature, and not aggressively go against it. Picture a stick floating down a river. When it bumps into a rock, it does not bash its way through the obstruction; instead, it gently moves around it and continues down its course. Daoism has a range of specific recommendations for how we should tend to our lives. For example, we should abandon needless rules of law, morality and etiquette, and instead spontaneously follow the simple inclinations that nature has implanted in us. When we are hungry, nature will direct us to acquire food. If other people are hungry, nature will direct us to assist them. We should even avoid expanding our knowledge through study since this will obstruct the wisdom that nature has already placed within us. By following the Dao, our entire social environments will be transformed. Gone will be the hustle and bustle of big cities, our reliance on intrusive technology, and the endless conflicts between each other. We will instead live more tranquil lives in natural surroundings, and work more directly with nature to meet our immediate needs.
Daoism also has definite suggestions for dealing with life’s woes. If I become gravely ill, I should recognize this as part of the natural cycle of things from growth to decay. The prospect of dying itself should not agitate me since from my raw elements nature will bring forth new life in the continuing cycle of birth and death. By understanding and experiencing the Dao, I see my place in the natural course of things, yield to its power, and peacefully accept whatever happens to me.
It is hard to be critical of a philosophy whose central theme is to return to nature, which is an intuition that resonates within many of us. But Daoism relies on an extreme conception of human nature that is difficult to accept. Let us grant that humans are products of natural forces and we are ultimately at the mercy of natural cycles of growth and decay. Still, humans come into existence with very few natural inclinations to guide us through life. Our survival skills have been honed through thousands of years of trial and error, and passed down from one generation to another. Without this pool of acquired knowledge to draw from, even the simplest task of finding our next meal would be insurmountable. Nature’s unforgiving message to the human race has been “Good luck in finding your own way: if you fail, you die.” There are indeed important lessons that we can learn from observing nature at work, but the most valuable of these result from careful and even scientific analysis, such as building construction, successful farming, cures for diseases. Our actual lot in life does not seem to be as passive as Daoism suggests, and any happiness we experience must be achieved while we aggressively acquire the knowledge that we need to survive. Thus, there is little opportunity to peacefully glide through life as Daosim recommends, and that part of its solution to the problem of life’s meaning looks a little impractical.
Buddhism and Extinguishing Desire
The Buddhist religion was founded around 500 BCE in India by a man named Siddhartha Gautama, later given the honorary title of “Buddha,” which means enlightened one. After many years of attempting to achieve enlightenment through traditional religious paths, the Buddha worked out an approach which he felt answered the fundamental question of life’s meaning. He encapsulated his position in Four Noble Truths. The first truth is that life is suffering. From the moment that we are born until we die, everything we do involves suffering, including physical pains, emotional traumas, endless frustrations and disappointments. While Job’s problem of suffering was sparked by specific and untimely tragedies, Buddha maintained more generally that suffering is an integral part of our daily lives and is the obstacle we face in our life’s quest for meaning and happiness. The second noble truth is that the source of all suffering is desire. We crave almost anything that might bring us pleasure, including sensuality, personal opinions, cherished traditions; and these yearnings become so intense that they rise to the level of addictions. The third is that the cure for suffering is the elimination of desire. If suffering is caused by desire, then it stands to reason that by eradicating desire we thereby end suffering. The fourth is what he calls the Eightfold Path, which is a series of eight techniques for eliminating desire. The specific paths involve the proper cultivation of our understanding, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness and concentration.
Buddha modeled the Four Noble Truths after the method used by physicians of his day for treating illnesses, namely, identify the disease and its cause, determine whether it is curable, and then prescribed the cure. This is a perfect way of understanding the issue of life’s meaning: target the problem and offer a solution. Virtually all of Buddhist philosophy and theology is an extended commentary on the Four Noble Truths. But it is the third truth, eliminating desire, that concerns us here. This is the celebrated Buddhist concept of nirvana, which literally means “to extinguish.” In essence, we extinguish our desires just as we might blow out the flame of a candle. Extinguishing our desires, though, involves much more than losing our various cravings: I must lose my individual identity and even my self-consciousness as a distinct being. As long as I experience life in the usual way, I will be tainting everything through my private, self-indulgent identity. By eliminating my identity, I eliminate all the suffering that I have created through my desires.
Nirvana appears to be the ultimate solution to the problem of life’s meaning. Once the “I” is removed from the equation, there is nothing left to experience life’s misery. There are questions about this solution, though, which Buddhists themselves raise. First, to truly extinguish my identity, don’t I have to be dead? As long as I remain alive, I will always be experiencing my self-identity. It seems strange to say that the goal of life is to be completely annihilated through death. Second, while most Buddhists feel that nirvana can be achieved while we are still alive, the concept of nirvana-in-this-life is almost impossible to describe, and very difficult to achieve. The Dalai Lama, one of Buddhism’s great leaders, describes the frustration that many Buddhists experience regarding nirvana:
I myself feel and also tell other Buddhists that the question of nirvana will come later. There is not much hurry. But if in day to day life you lead a good life, honestly, with love, with compassion, with less selfishness, then automatically it will lead to nirvana. Opposite to this, if we talk about nirvana, talk about philosophy, but do not bother much about day to day practice, then you may reach a strange nirvana but will not reach the correct nirvana because your daily practice is nothing. [Kindness, Clarity, and Insight, Chapter 1]
In short, nirvana is shrouded in mystery, and the best I can do is follow the recommended paths for achieving it, while closing my eyes to what nirvana actually is. Even if nirvana in this life can be an effective solution to the problem of life’s meaning, it is difficult for us to examine this possibility when we cannot easily put it into words.
Hinduism and the Four Goals of Life
Originating around 3,500 years ago, the Hindu religion is a diverse collection of beliefs and practices that emerged throughout India’s rich history. The religion has many different gods, devotional practices and philosophies, which believers can freely select from, kind of like a religious a la carte menu. Similarly, when it comes to the question of life’s meaning, Hindu tradition does not restrict itself to one simple answer. Rather, it offers four distinct goals of life, which people should embrace in varying degrees during different periods of their lives.
The first goal of life is pleasure in its assorted emotional and physical forms: food, art, music, dance, and even sex. One of the more infamous Hindu writings, the Kama Sutra, is actually a handbook on sexual activity, vividly describing dozens of techniques. We are naturally inclined to pursue pleasures, and in their proper setting it is fully appropriate for us to fulfill our desires. The second goal is material success. Like pleasure, we are naturally inclined to acquire wealth and power, which not only keeps us from being impoverished but gives us a sense of accomplishment. The goals of pleasure and material success are most fitting for younger couples who are raising families. As we mature, we embrace the third goal, namely moral harmony, which helps regulate our desires for pleasure and success, but also sparks our social responsibility towards other people. The fourth goal is religious enlightenment where believers become spiritually released from the constraints of human life and attain ultimate happiness. This final goal is best pursued when our family responsibilities are behind us and we can go off in seclusion and practice meditation without distraction.
There is nothing particularly original with any of these four goals individually. We find each advocated by different philosophers from around the world, such as Epicurus’ recommendation to pursue pleasure. The unique insight of Hinduism, though, is that we are complex creatures who change over the years, and there is no single goal that will give us meaning at every stage of our lives. It does not make sense to offer a one-size-fits-all solution to the problem of life’s meaning when people are so diverse. But this is precisely what many philosophers have done. For example, the Stoics recommend that we should resign ourselves to fate, and this single formula, they believe, is the sole solution to the problem of life’s meaning. This may be why the question of life’s meaning still seems to demand an answer after thousands of years of attempted answers: we have given overly simplistic solutions to a very complex set of problems.
In keeping with Hindu tradition, perhaps we should approach the meaning of life as we would an a la carte menu: we can pick a few solutions now and, when life’s circumstances change, go back to the menu and pick a few others. While Hinduism suggests four specific ones, each of which is an excellent menu item, we could add all of the other solutions that we have discussed so far, Greek, Western religious and Eastern religious. If I ever become a prisoner of war, then I might want to pick the Stoic option of resigning myself to fate. If life becomes too frenzied for me, I might want to pick the Daoist option of following the way of nature. Religiously inclined people can pick the Christian option of furthering God’s kingdom, or the Buddhist option of seeking nirvana, depending on their religious preferences. The point is to seek a solution that best addresses a specific life circumstance or problem. The more creative we are in adding items to the menu, the less likely we will be overcome by Gilgamesh’s problem of death, Sisyphus’s problem of futility, Boethius’s problem of cosmic insignificance, Job’s problem of suffering, or any other problem that undermines our sense of purpose or happiness.
PHILOSOPHY AND LIFE’S MEANING
While the subject of the meaning of life is philosophically interesting in its own right, there are four larger lessons that it teaches us about the subject of philosophy. First, this subject is a good introduction to the various fields of philosophical exploration. We have seen that questions of life’s meaning lead to puzzles about how we know things, such as the existence of an afterlife, the nature of nirvana, or whether the table in front of me actually exists. Important questions are also raised about the nature of reality, particularly whether God exists and whether there is a spiritual realm beyond the physical one that we see around us. A range of issues emerge about human nature, such as whether my mind can exist independently of my body and whether my actions are within my control. Finally, there are value questions relating to our conduct towards other people and what kind of social structure will best facilitate happiness. The forthcoming chapters explore precisely these issues.
Second, discussions about life’s meaning reveal that no theory is sacred, and every proposed idea will inevitably be followed by criticisms, and these criticisms followed by responses. For example, the story of Gilgamesh suggests that we are burdened by a fear of death. The life-after-death solution aims to address this fear by giving us hope beyond the grave. One criticism of this solution is that even believers occasionally have doubts about the existence of an afterlife. The debate need not end here, though. The believer might counter this with an argument for the existence of an afterlife; the critic might then challenge the validity of the believer’s argument. Hopefully at some point in the debate one side will seem more compelling than another. But even if the discussion appears to end in a stalemate, as it certainly may with many solutions to the problem of life’s meaning, all is not lost. In some cases, truth is not necessarily found in the philosophical theories themselves but rather in the critical give-and-take surrounding those theories.
Third, throughout this discussion of the meaning of life, we continually referenced the writings of past philosophers. Philosophy pays special homage to its historical lineage of great thinkers, and, even if we disagree with them, we do not discard them as we might the outdated views of bygone scientists. The writings of past philosophers constitute a body of philosophical scripture in a very real and literal way, which we continually add to with each new generation. Their works have defined the specific topics that we investigate in the field of philosophy, and they express the range of positions that we can take on the issues. The most sacred of these canonized texts, such as ones by Plato or Aristotle, display a special insight, in much the way that musical compositions by Bach and Beethoven show a special level of musical genius.
A fourth lesson that we get from the discussions in this chapter is that there are different ways of addressing philosophical issues. Some are more scientific, drawing on tangible experience and the contributions of researchers. Others are more introspective, relying on private reflections about the human thought process. Still others rest on pure logic, such as whether two positions can be consistently held at the same time. Philosophy also developed different forms of expression that communicate different content. While many philosophical works are in the form of systematic treatises, philosophy is also expressed in the form of dialogues, meditations, poetic expressions, diaries, confessions, aphorisms, commentaries, geometric structures. Philosophers have pretty much used every style of written communication to express their ideas. In every case, though, philosophy aims to challenge us to rethink our old assumptions. While philosophy involves a certain amount of mental gymnastics, the rewards are worth the effort as we begin to see issues in new ways.
Augustine. City of God.
Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex, Knopf, 1953.
Boethius. The Consolation of Philosophy. A recent translation is by Victor Watts (London: Penguin, 1999).
Bstan-‘dzin-rgya-mtsho, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. Kindness, Clarity, and Insight, Tr. Jeffrey Hopkins, Snow Lion Publications, 1983.
Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955.
Chuang-Tzu. The Chuan-Tzu. A recent translation is by Burton Watson, The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1968). The “Tale of the Cook” appears in Chapter 3.
Dor-Ziderman, Yair. “Prediction-based Neural Mechanisms for Shielding the Self from Existential Threat,” NeuroImage 2019, Vol. 202.
Gilgamesh. A recent translation is by Stephen Mitchell, Gilgamesh: A New English Version (New York: Free Press, 2004).
Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time (1927). A standard translation is by John MacQuarrie and Edward Robinson, Being and Time (New York, Harper and Row, 1962). Part II, Chapter 1 discusses his views on death.
Homer. The Odyssey. A standard translation is by Robert Fagles, The Odyssey (London: Penguin, 2001). The discussion of Sisyphus is in Book 11.
Kierkegaard, Soren. Either-Or, “The Method of Rotation”, 1843.
Kierkegaard, Soren. Notebook, 17.102.
Law of Manu. A recent translation is by Wendy Doniger and Brian K. Smith, The Laws of Manu (London: Penguin Books, 1992).
Nietzsche, Friedrich. “Notes on the Eternal Recurrence”, 1881.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce Homo, 1888, 1.6.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Will to Power, 1901, 312, 319.
What is Nietzsche’s notion of the eternal return and what does it say about the meaning of life?
Describe the story of Gilgamesh.
What is Heidegger’s view of death?
Describe the story of Sisyphus.
What is Camus’s analysis of the Sisyphus story?
Describe Boethius’s discussion of cosmic insignificance.
What is Ricoeur’s solution to the problem of cosmic insignificance?
Describe the story of Job.
What is Nietzsche’s solution to the resentment caused by suffering?
Describe the Epicurean solution to the problem of life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the Stoic’s solution to the problem of life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the Skeptic’s solution to the problem of life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the Cynic’s solution to the problem of life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the “having children” solution to life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the “life after death” solution to life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the “furthering God’s kingdom” solution to life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the Daoist solution to the problem of life’s meaning and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
Describe the Buddhist Four Noble Truths, and give one criticism of it from the chapter.
What are the four Hindu goals of life, and what is its unique insight into solutions to the problem of life’s meaning?
What are the four larger lessons that discussions of the meaning of life teach us about the subject of philosophy
Short essay: pick any one of the following views in this chapter and criticize it in a minimum of 150 words. Nietzsche’s view of the eternal return, Heidegger’s view of death, Camus’s solution to Sisyphus’s problem, Boethius’s view of cosmic insignificance, Ricoeur’s solution to cosmic insignificance, one of the four ancient Greek solutions to the problem of life’s meaning, one of the three Western religion solutions to the problem of life’s meaning, one of the three Eastern religion solutions to the problem of life’s meaning.
“He who opens a school door, closes a prison. “ – Victor Hugo
“True Beauty is the Reflection of the Glory of God on our countenances, in our character, and through our Lives, as God transforms us through fellowship with Him in His Word and in Prayer.” – II Corinthians 3:18
True Beauty cannot be put into mere words. Such Beauty can convey to us that Divine Intervention is real. The deep poignancy of God’s Love for His Children is expressed over and over in the Beautiful, Haunting Creations that abound all around our Sacred Planet.
His Love is in the fresh morning air, in the Glory of Morning, and in the Morning Glory, and in all the Fruits of God’s Gifts beneath His Bountiful Sun.
“For Flowers that bloom about our feet, Father, we thank Thee. For tender grass so fresh, so sweet, Father, we thank Thee. For the song of Bird and hum of Bee, for all things fair we hear or see, Father in Heaven, we thank Thee.
For blue of stream and blue of sky, Father, we thank Thee. For pleasant shade of branches high, Father, we thank Thee. For fragrant air and cooling breeze, for beauty of the blooming trees, Father in Heaven, we thank Thee.
For this new morning with its Light, Father, we thank Thee. For rest and shelter of the night, Father, we thank Thee For health and food, for Love and friends, for everything Thy Goodness sends, Father in Heaven, we thank Thee.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson
The busier we become, the less time we spend thinking upon what will draw us closer to God.
Such reflection is a Present from God to Human Kind. In Prayer we are simply, amazingly Peaceful, in a World filled with distractions and sorrow. Our Communion with God is Beauty on a level we have seldom encountered.
Few of us have felt the fullness of the Love of God. But each of us have felt the desperate yearning for the Joy and the Peace that such Unconditional Love brings.
Such Love is indescribable, powerful and Truly Beautiful, and it is waiting for you. Close your eyes, and open your Heart. God is so in Love with you.
“Beloved, let us Love one another, for Love is from God, and whoever Loves has been born of God and knows God. Anyone who does not Love does not know God, because God is Love.” – 1 John 4:7-8
The Music of your Prayer blossoms into Song that will make you Truly Happy.
In Love, there is no measure of Time. Love is ageless and Evergreen. It serves to deepen the meaning of Life, and let us walk into our Dreams,
Find Happiness. Look for it in your precious Heart. Sail above the Oceans Deep, and find Love that you can keep. . My Dear Friends, all we have is who we are. But who we are is far, far more than we have ever discovered. And we have each other. And yes, we have Forever, the Precious Love of God. Our destiny is in our hands, and in the Sacred Hands of our Sisters and Brothers. We belong to each other.
Our destiny depends upon whether we live in Harmony with God, following His Moral Teachings. It is our responsibility to decide our destiny.
“So is my word that goes out from my mouth: It will not return to me empty, but will accomplish what I desire and achieve the purpose for which I sent it.” – Isaiah 55:11
Our Lord is looking for you, like a Rose under the Spring snow. Be certain Love will grow, ageless and Evergreen. Never give up on Love. It is patiently waiting for you.
OneLove that is shared by two will make every day warm and colorful and exciting.
“The best remedy for those who are afraid, lonely or unhappy is to go outside, somewhere where they can be quiet, alone with the Heavens, Nature and God. Because only then does one feel that all is as it should be and that God wishes to see people Happy, amidst the simple Beauty of Nature.”
– Anne Frank
We can live Life everyday with Love and care. We can touch the Heart, Mind, and Soul of others. What Beautiful Angelic Gifts there are to see, and hear and feel in the Fruits of God’s Love.
Let us Love one another, and let the Love of God flow through us.
Over the last several decades, certain foods have been vilified as being potentially carcinogenic, or capable of causing cancer. So which ones are the biggest culprits? And how can you eat to prevent cancer or reduce the chances of a recurrence if you’ve been diagnosed?
The list of potentially cancer-causing foods includes:
— Redand processed meat.
— Processed and packaged foods.
Red and Processed Meat
For thecarnivores among us, it’s probably tough to hear the news that red meat and processed meat are associated with a higher risk of certain types of cancer. “Red meat is defined as beef, veal, pork, lamb and goat,” says Cathy Leman, a dietitian, personal trainer, nutrition therapist, speaker, writer and breast cancer survivor based in Chicago.
“Processed meat refers to meat that has been salted, cured, fermented, smoked or other processes that enhance flavor or improve preservation,”she adds. Examples include hot dogs, luncheon meats, ham and bacon.
Jeannette Schenk, senior staff scientist in the cancer prevention program at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, says “There have been many epidemiological studies that have reported an association with high intakes of processed meat and red meat with an increase in cancer incidence and mortality.”
According to the American Institute for Cancer Research, a high intake of red meat is defined as more than three servings per week. A single serving of red meat is about 3 to 4 ounces — or one small hamburger, steak or a medium-sized pork chop. Your total weekly consumption, the AICR reports, should be under 350 to 500 grams (about 12 to 18 ounces cooked) each week.
The cancer risk associated with processed meat products is even higher. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a branch of the World Health Organization, classifies processed meat as a Group 1 carcinogen, meaning that like other Group 1 carcinogens — tobacco, UV radiation and alcohol — research has proven that processed meat can cause cancer in humans. Eating just 50 grams of processed meat each day, the IARC reports, can elevate cancer risk by 18%. Four strips of bacon or one hot dog contains about 50 grams of processed meat.
Kailey Proctor, an oncology dietitian with the Center for Cancer Prevention and Treatment at St. Joseph Hospital in Orange, California, emphasizes, though, that the observed connection between meat and cancer “is an association, not a causation,” meaning that we don’t know for sure whether consumption of red meat is causing the cancer directly. Nevertheless, she notes that processed meat products “are processed foods” that should be consumed in moderation, aiming for one serving per week or less.
Why these meats appear to elevate cancer risk, particularly colorectal cancer, is believed to be because red meats and processed meatscontain mutagens and carcinogens. Mutagens change genetic information by altering DNA, and carcinogens are cancer-causing agents.
When meat is cooked at high temperatures or grilled, amino acids in the meat interact with the heat to form carcinogenic compounds called heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. “Those have been linked with cancer risk,” Schenk says.
With processed meats, the cancer risk appears to be related to the way the meat is preserved and cooked. Specifically, the addition of preservatives called nitrates and nitrites may elevate cancer risk. Similarly, smoking meats can also create carcinogenic compounds, Schenk says.
Sugar is also implicated in the development and progression of certain kinds of cancer. In the early 20th century, a German biochemist named Otto Warburg observed that cancer cells often rely on sugar to fuel their prolific growth. Called the Warburg effect, this process suggests that starving the body of sugar and carbohydrates that can be converted to sugar could theoretically starve cancer cells.
As a result, the ketogenic diet, which reduces carbohydrate intake to 10% or less of calories consumed and increases fat consumption to 70% or more, has been suggested as a way to slow the spread of cancer.
The effectiveness of the keto diet to prevent or slow cancer hasn’t been fully proven, but an association between sugar and cancerhas been established. For this reason, “any food which has a very high glycemic index” can increase your risk of cancer and should be consumed in moderation, says Dr. Adil Akhtar, associate professor in the department of medical oncology and hematology at Oakland University-William Beaumont School of Medicine and director of Inpatient Clinical Operations at Karmanos-McLaren Oakland Cancer Center in Michigan.
A food’s glycemic indexis “defined by the rate at which a food when it’s digested will raise the level of sugar in the blood,” Akhtar explains. Sugary foods, such as soda and candy, have a high glycemic index.
Some experts say that if you’re concerned about cancer, you should eliminate all refined sugar from your diet because many types of cancer cells use sugar as their primary fuel. In fact, some diagnostic tests for cancer use radioactive glucose to pinpoint tumors on PET scans because most cancer cells have such an affinity for sugar that they suck up glucose molecules faster than noncancerous cells can, thus showing themselves on the scan.
Alcohol is actually a type of sugar, so it’s also on the list of foods that can increase your risk of cancer. “Alcohol is an established risk factor for mouth, pharynx, esophageal, liver, colorectal, breast and pancreatic cancer,” Schenk says.
Exactly how alcohol increases risk is not clearly understood, but “it’s possibly related to DNA damage” incurred by the cells after exposure to alcohol, Schenk says.
“In addition, it could be an indirect contributor because calories from alcohol contribute to weight gain.” Alcoholic beverages contribute a lot of excess calories that offer no nutritional benefits, so “it’s one of those added foods that we need to be limiting,” she says.
The federal government’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025 states that if you don’t drink, don’t start. It also recommends that moderating intake is an important way to curb cancer risk in people who do choose to consume alcoholic beverages.
Moderate alcoholic drinking is defined as one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. A drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 8 to 9 ounces of malt liquor, 5 ounces of wine and 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits.
Akhtar says certain processed foods can also raise your risk of developing cancer.“Things like microwaved popcorn have compounds that are linked with cancer.” The environmental organization Environmental Working Group raised the alarm about a chemical called PFOA that was used to coat the inside of popcorn bags as a likely carcinogen, prompting the FDA to ban its use in food packaging in 2006.
However, a subsequent EWG investigation suggested that the replacement chemicals (needed to prevent oils in the bag from soaking through the paper) are also potentially carcinogenic and likely contain perfluorinated chemicals. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, a division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reports that these chemicals, known as PFCs, may increase the risk of cancer.
Other ultra-processed foods, such as packaged baked goods and snacks, fizzy drinks, sugary cereals, ready meals and reconstituted meat products, have also been linked with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, according to a 2018 study in the British Medical Journal.
The study, which included 104,980 healthy French adults, found that a 10% increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet was associated with increases of 12% in the risk of overall cancer and 11% in the risk of breast cancer. No significant association was found for prostate and colorectal cancers.
Ultra-processed food products also tend to be higher in calories, salt, sugar and saturated fats, all of which may contribute to obesity, which is a known risk factor for cancer.
Even seemingly healthy foods, such as farmed salmon, may contain chemicals that might increase cancer risk. The Environmental Protection Agency has classified polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs as probably carcinogenic in humans. This class of chemicals were manufactured from 1929 until they were banned in 1979, but they linger still in the environment. Whether the levels of these chemicals, which enter the food chain from industrial and hazardous waste sites and become concentrated in the feed given to farmed fish, are high enough to cause cancer is still being debated.
If you’re concerned about this risk, Harvard Health suggests removing the skin of the salmon and the fat directly underneath it before cooking, as that’s where the chemicals are most concentrated. Allowing the fat to drain off by grilling, baking or broiling can also reduce risk. Studies have also suggested that lower levels of these chemicals have been identified in fish farmed in Chile and Washington State, so check where your fish is coming from.
How Should I Eat to Avoid Cancer?
While some foods have been associated with an increased risk of certain kinds of cancer, other foods are believed to help reduce your risk. This is where Yael Vodovotz, director of the center for advanced functional foods and entrepreneurship at the Ohio State University in Columbus, is focusing her research efforts.
“Our lab is focusing on foods for prevention,” she says, and they’re investigating the bioactive compounds in food that “potentially can work together for cancer prevention.” (Bioactive means the compound has an effect on cells or a living organism and is used to describe vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other components of food.) In addition, they’re looking to formulate foods or food combinations that can offer a bioactive effect.
In that work, berrieshave been one brightly colored bright spot in terms of the benefits they can provide. “We’ve studied black raspberries, strawberries and blueberries. A lot of berries have combinations of bioactive properties.”
Soy is another food they’re studying, and while there has been some concern that soy might elevate risk of breast cancer in some people, some studies have shown it could be protective against other kinds of cancer. Look for soy to remain part of the food-and-cancer conversation for some time to come.
Vodovotz also says that green tea, tomatoes,grapefruit and cruciferous vegetablessuch as broccoli have bioactive compounds that are under investigation for their cancer-fighting properties too.
“The idea is to incorporate the whole foods,” she says, instead of extracting a single compound. And finding the optimal combination of foods that give the full balance of cancer-fighting phytochemicals and nutrients is still a work in progress.
Vodovotz also notes that eating too much of any food can have negative consequences. “Foods are all made of chemicals, and if you take in way, way, way too much for a prolonged time, it’s going to be a problem.”
Eat a Balanced Diet
While her work continues determining which compounds can help and which may hurt in the quest to remain cancer-free, Vodovotz says, you can get a jump start by eating a balanced diet. “I’m very big on the USDA’s (U.S. Department of Agriculture) MyPlate plan,” which advocates incorporating lots of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fiber and lean and plant-based proteins. “I do believe there’s an intimate link between cancer prevention and diet.”
Akhtar agrees, adding that there’s not one specific diet that will solve the cancer question, but he likes the Mediterranean diet for its balance of nutrients, low levels of sugar and focus on whole foods.
“Eat a balanced diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables” and limits carbohydrates and sugars, he says. “Eat smaller portions of lean meat and healthy fats included in fish, nuts and olives. If you look at the list of different diets, all the healthy diets will have these basic components with a little bit of modifications.”
The American Institute for Cancer Research recommends a mostly plant-based diet for cancer prevention, Proctor says. “Their ‘New American Plate’ model suggests having two-thirds of your plate plant-based foods, such asfruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans and legumes. The remaining one-third of the plate should be a lean source of protein, such as chicken, turkey and seafood.”
To help curb cancer risk, seek to eat a whole, balanced diet that includes:
— Vegetables and fruits.
— Anti-inflammatory spices.
— Plant-based proteins.
Vegetables and Fruits
These fresh, whole foods contain antioxidants and a host of other helpful nutrients that keep the body working the way it’s supposed to. In addition to the vitamins, minerals, fiber and “other bioactive components that may directly impact cancer risk,” vegetables and fruits may also “potentially have an indirect impact” on cancer risk, Schenk says. Plus, the more veggies and fruits you eat, the less you tend to weigh, which can also impact your risk of developing cancer given the connection between obesity and cancer.
Adding more plants to the diet is believed to confer some protective benefits against cancer, but it’s also important to note that cancer is about more than just diet. Your genetic make-up, environmental exposures, lifestyle and other risk factors can greatly influence your chances of developing the disease. “It’s important to stress that we don’t yet have 100% cancer prevention through diet,” Leman says. “But we do have strong evidence to use in developing dietary guidelines for reducing risk.”
Leman recommends eating at least five servings (2.5 to 3 cups total) of non-starchy vegetables and fruit daily.
Adding turmeric— a bright orange spice found in many Indian dishes — to your diet may help reduce inflammation in the body. Cinnamon and ginger have also been shown to offer anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation is a hallmark feature of cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease, and many doctors and researchers believe that decreasing inflammation can reduce the risk of cancer.
Instead of relying heavily on animal products for protein intake, look to plants for protein. Legumes and beans are excellent sources of protein that also contain lots of fiber.
“While it’s not necessary to eat a vegetarian or vegan diet, it’s wise to limit intake of red meat to 18 ounces per week, and enjoy processed meats like ham, bacon and sausage on occasion,” Leman says.
Increasing your intake of fibermight also help reduce your risk of cancer, specifically colorectal and gastric cancers, Proctor says. “Fiber also gives us a sense of fullness so we’re less likely to snack between meals, which helps maintain a healthy body weight.”
Leman recommends striving to consume at least 30 grams of fiber daily.
Maintaining a healthy body weight is an important partof controlling cancer risk. “We do know maintaining a healthy body weight is one of the best ways to reduce your risk for cancer. A healthy body weight is considered to be a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2.” BMI, or body mass index, is a metabolic assessment based on height and weight.
You can calculate your own BMI using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s online BMI calculator. Aim to stay in the healthy BMI range between 18.5 and 24.9 — being underweight can pose health risks, Proctor says.
“While undergoing active treatment, people often have special nutritional requirements,” she says. “Working with an oncology dietitian for individualized nutritional care and guidance can help patients manage side-effects like nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue and changes in bowel habits.”
And while there’s no one “best diet” for cancer, think about everything you eat in context. Emphasize whole foods, and reduce intake of processed foods and sugars. “We have to consider the diet as a whole. We’re shifting at looking more at dietary patterns versus individual foods with respect to impact on cancer risk and cancer prevention,” Schenk says.
With silence, like a pendulum about to strike a bell. And if you allow the pendulum to choose you, there will be Music.
Listen from a place that most people cannot reach, way down deep in the Soul, in silent Communion with the Infinite.
The Silence of the Soul is louder than loud, instinctively intuitive, and deeply Loving.
Yes, we can rediscover our World, again.
If you keep searching for meaning in Life, suddenly, you will search no more.
And you discover you cannot find, that which is not missing.
Life, need not be a sad melody. Think of the many things that are so Beautiful and make us smile.
Or, My Dear Friend, do not think at all. Just Listen to the golden silence, and feel where the Song of Life takes you. Take a deep breath, and let out the meaningless stress, slowly.
Everything and everyone you come to Love can have a piece of your Heart. This one moment in Time, can have a piece of your Life. And the Song your Life sings, can become a transcendental experience. It will SHINE like the Sun, in a jealous sky.
Your precious Life will brightly glow with all the Love you GIVE.
Believe. . Yes, bring your Heart to what you Truly Believe. Close your eyes and visualize the details of Life that brought you Joy, that made those around you Happy. Go there again, every day. Your Home is in your Heart. Just BELIEVE.
People all over the World are like you and me – they Hope and they wish and they Dream. . Remember, not to be sad about the past, or worry about the future. What we are Truly Blessed with, is Today. And Tomorrow is a new chance, to unwrap the Gift of a new day.
Life can not only give you something new, it can draw something out of you to give to others – to Love, and cherish and renew.
You can be transported to an entirely different, unsuspected and Beautiful place. Your ability to find new dimensions in Life that are not familiar, is unmatched.
This is a Life to get lost in. Switch off all the lights that expose deep regret, and anger, and despair. Float away on clouds of Dreams. YOU are far more than you have ever imagined.
God’s Universe is Beautifully designed to reunite us somehow, someway, like a gentle breeze that gathers Leaves of Gold together. In the magical World of the Human Heart lies every wish fulfilled.
“Now to Him who is able to do immeasurably more than all we ask or imagine, according to His Power that is at work within us,” – Ephesians 3:20 . God is awesome and He wants to Bless you with much more than you could ever dream of or imagine, because He is in Love with you and wants to give you His best for your precious Life.
With my most Heartfelt Prayer for Peace in all the troubled Souls and the sadly broken Hearts. . Goodnight.
RNA technology in Covid-19 vaccines could be used to treat other diseases like cancer, top expert says.
THE mRNA technology used in potential Covid-19 vaccines could be deployed to treat other diseases such as CANCER, a top Irish expert has said.
Professor of Biochemistry at the School of Immunology at Trinity CollegeLuke O’Neill told RTE’s Brendan O’Connor that “there’s grounds for lots of optimism” over the Covid-19 vaccines being developed.
Asked by O’Connor if Ireland was “counting our chickens” too much over a Covid vaccine, the professor responded: “I don’t think so.“
Discussing U.S. pharmaceutical giant Pfizer stating their Covid-19 vaccine was 90 per cent effective, Prof O’Neill said: “Of course, it’s a press release as I’ve said one thousand times.
“I need to see the data and the science.
“But they wouldn’t be releasing this unless they knew it was really good.“
‘LOOKING VERY GOOD’
He continued: “It’s looking very good and even more importantly, in a way, there’s at least two other vaccines that are very similar to Pfizer’s one, which are being tested as we speak.”
When asked by O’Connor about the mRNA technology in the Covid-19 vaccine from Pfizer and their partner, the German company BioNTech, Prof O’Neill said: “You can fall off our seat as well because this could be used for other diseases as well, not just Covid, even cancer.”
He explained: “The husband and wife team – Dr Ugur Sahin and Dr Ozlem Tureci – they developed this vaccine for BioNTech, a German company.
“They’ve been pushing this for years and nobody was listening.”
“It was fringe, RNA was seen as too difficult.”
“Now they’ve got somewhere and they were going after cancer actually.”
“Now if it works in Covid, it could work in cancer as well, so there’s grounds for lots of optimism.“
According to Pfizer, RNA vaccines work by introducing into the body an mRNA (messenger RNA) sequence that contains the genetic instructions for the vaccinated person’s own cells to produce the vaccine antigens and generate an immune response.
“He who opens a school door, closes a prison. “ – Victor Hugo
“Love is a Fruit in season at all times, and within reach of every hand.” – Mother TeresaPure Joy, True Happiness, is like a bright and beautiful shining Light. Love becomes real, when turned towards others. And it is within reach of everyone, especially you. A part of Life is when the person who gives you the most Beautiful memories, becomes a memory.
And in remembering, we come to realize that Love never ends. Moments we thought would last forever, do. . Love reminds us of the Truly important things in Life, when Living strays toward the trivial. Precious memories take us Home, to the Heart’s Essence, where Peace and Happiness flows.
We begin our brief Journey of Living in every day with all the Love that we hold in our Heart, and arrive with the Love that we are.
Love is, in the end, for those who accept the Truth. Truth which comes from God. For God is Love. He is not merely Loving – God Loves in the completeness and perfection of Love. Love comes from God.
My Dear Friends, Miracles happen, and Hearts change. There is a Pathway between Heaven and Earth. That Pathway becomes what we behold, in our Hearts.
We can come to know what the Song of our precious Lives really means. When you hear it, you will feel the comfort only messages like that can bring. The Kindness and the Compassion you bring to others will let your Heart soar and Sing.
There is something very special about you. The Song of your precious Life takes you to a Sacred Place where you experience the present, this special and singular moment in Time.
Yes, the Beauty all around reminds us of the Love we have for each other, and the Love that God has for us. One moment of Love is worth more than a Lifetime without it. . Our Love for each other is immeasurable. Our Love is remembered as something we will die for. And more important, as something we Live for.
My Dear Friends, let us remember God’s Promise – the Promise of Eternal Life, and the promise of meeting again one day in Heaven.
“And this is the Promise that He has Promised us – Eternal Life.” – 1 John 2:25
Death is where sorrow and Joy combine, where memories are crafted and preserved. Whenever you see a Rainbow in the Sky, whenever you look up at night to see the Stars shining bright, or look upon a stormy and rainy sky, remember the Promise that you will never die.
Jesus said to her, “I am the Resurrection and the Life. He who Believes in Me will Live, even though he dies; and whoever Lives and Believes in Me will never die.” – 1 Thessalonians 4:13-14
Hold onto the knowing that God’s Love will always shine down upon the Earth, and that you will be in the Warm Embrace of your Heavenly Father.
The Song of your sorrow and Joy will be a Song of Remembrance, and one Day, sorrow will be no more.
From the dynamic televised special, “War Dogs of the Pacific” comes the memorable quote from one World War II soldier: “My dog was my psychiatrist. I would not have survived without him”.
Well, I have a psychiatrist. I have several of them. And they all wear fur coats! I cannot get them to take their coats off, even in the depths of summer. And am I glad?
We use our cherished canine friends for therapy for our students and for ourselves. And the wonders they work, we cannot even comprehend.
Our beautiful experiences with each one of them, brings to mind what Francis of Assisi said many years ago, “It is important to respect and preserve everything that is a part of God’s Kingdom”. And a really important part of the Kingdom wags its tail and teaches us each day what unconditional Love is.
Numerous cancers are preventable, but strategies to prevent them are either not accessible or not being adopted, leaving people at risk.
Can cancer be prevented? Yes!Most cancers- 40 % (WHO Report) can be prevented! This is a key message for a disease that is the public’s number one health fear. Research suggests that only five percent of cancers are inherited.
Many people believe that getting cancer is purely down to genes, fate or bad luck. Thankfully, that’s not true. Yes! Cancer is a major cause of premature death.
50% of cancers are YOUR OWN FAULT. You Smoke too much,drink too much, and eat badly, don´t exercise enough, you´re overweight´. There is as much evidence against poor diet, red meat and processed food but hidden agendas and politics prevents you hearing the full truth about cancer.
Risks and % of cancer deaths Smoking and use of tobacco — 30% Obesity, diet and Diabetes —30% Pollutants and Carcinogens — 5% Viruses – hepatitis, human papillomavirus, HIV — 5% Women’s reproductive factors- late or no childbearing, late menopause, early periods etc. — 5% Exposure to ultra violet rays — 2%
Dying from cancer is more likely among those eating – red meat – about 22% higher for men and 20% for women? We could prevent the deaths of one million men and perhaps half a million women just by eating less red meat and processed food — Dr. Barry Popkin.
Take steps to reduce your risk for cancer now! 3D approach. 1 – Diet and healthy Lifestyle 2 – Dangers from the environment and toxins 3 – Disease (from parasites to viruses to yeasts) and in addition.
Detect precancerous conditions early and remove them. Precancerous conditions are tumors and other conditions that may later become cancer. Chemoprevention- medicines to treat a precancerous condition or to prevent starting of cancer.
SCIENCE of EPIGENETICS of cancer It’s a field called epigenetics– study of environmental and external influences that can alter gene expression. This gives the potential to alter the faulty genes. More importantly, even if a cancer is genetic, it does not necessarily mean that genes express themselves resulting in cancer.The most common forms of cancer are often unrelated to genetics. Cancers develop because something has gone wrong with one or more of the genes in a cell. A change in a gene is called a ‘fault’ or ‘mutation’. Usually a cell must have 6 or more gene faults before it becomes cancerous. Factors that cause changes around your DNA leading to cancer are stress, environmental toxins, poor dietand hormones used in Hormone replacement therapy.
Vaccine for Human papillomavirus (HPV) About two-thirds of HPV-related cancers happen in areas other than the cervix. HPV infection is related to: 80% to 90% of anal cancers 40% of vaginal and vulvar cancers 40% to 50% of penile cancers 25% to 35% of mouth and throat cancers Practice safe sex and avoid HIV infection. People who did all healthylife style behaviors gained an average of 14 years of life compared to people who didn’t do any of them.
Is prevention a guarantee? ‘Healthy living’ is not a cast-iron guarantee against cancer. But it stacks the odds in your favor, by reducing the risk of developing the disease. For example, we know that it’s possible for a heavy smoker to live a cancer-free life, while someone who has never smoked could develop lung cancer. But large long-term studies clearly show that people who have never smoked are far less likely to develop or die from cancer than smokers.
Major strategies to prevent cancers Primary prevention is the most cost effective prevention program as it aims to reduce the incidence of cancer by risk factor modification. Secondary Prevention: Slowing or blocking of tumor from becoming cancer. Detection of Precancerous lesions and early removal will prevent becoming cancers overtime E.g. Adenomatous polyps and chemo prevention. Tertiary Prevention Promoting self-examination skills particularly in early detection of lumps in the breast,the oral cavity and the face for early cancers and use of the occult blood test by older persons to detect colon-rectal cancer. Cervical cytology-Pap smear screening, Mammographic screening for breast cancer, preventive endoscopies etc. are to be pursued earnestly. Early cancer detection of precancerous lesions in groups at risk.
Public education Surveys have shown that people aren’t necessarily aware that all of these things are linked to cancer. For example, studies have found that 15 in 20 people don’t know obesity causes cancer, and 18 in 20 people aren’t aware of the link between alcohol and cancer. 40% do not know that processed red meat causes cancer. Numerous cancers are preventable, but strategies to prevent them are either not accessible or not being adopted, leaving people at risk. Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programs and has been shown to be effective. A culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activities and help prevent cancers. Education is an effective tool for modifying lifestyles and reducing cancer risks. However, an effective education program requires considerable planning to teach skills and healthy life-style habits. Since human behavior is increasingly recognized as a major determinant of health, the role of public education and the conduct of effective education programs take on greater importance in cancer prevention.
The writer is a former Director of Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiology
“For it is Love alone for which the World is seeking; and it is Love alone which can repay.” – Victor Herbert Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life
We captivate so many others by the resonating Light of our Love. .And the greatest reflection of Love in Life, is you.
Do not hold back your Loving and caring feelings. Do not continue to Live another Life. Become Truly Human. Become sensitive and Loving. Do not be afraid of Love. . Those around you are in deep need of your resonating Light of Love.
You will never be bound by the Life you leave behind, if you follow the pathway of Love.
With all your Heart, Pray that God will provide the strength to Live the way He wants us to Live.
You deserve Joy and Love. Look for the Beauty all around. Our Sacred World is ablaze with Light and Nature is abundant with Beautiful Creations of serenity and splendor. . Return to Nature in your times of need. God’s Love for you is expressed in incredible ways, with incredible Life, on so many Beautiful days. Life only happens once. Cherish each moment of it, and give Thanks every day.
Never forget the Music of Life, is Love.
It will bring tears to your eyes one day, in remembering all the Joyous moments you bring to the Lives of others.
“Always remember to have an . . . Open Mind, Humble Heart andHelpful Hands.” – Dani Sherman . Moments of caring and compassion are some of the purest forms of delight. In the challenging times in which we are living, our Journey in Life can become memorable and filled with Sacred moments.
Inner Peace is something shaped by Wisdom and Self-knowledge.
“So Beautiful ❤️ sometimes when you’re in a dark place you think you’ve been buried, but actually you’ve been planted. Let your seed grow! Ask for forgiveness and it will be received from our Heavenly Father. The next time someone asks how you are? Don’t just say I’m fine. Let your emotions out. Life is too short to just say we’re fine. We are great, we are Loved.” – LYNN MORLEY . Think deeply about our Precious and Loving Lord. He Blesses all with experiences in Life that give the most amazing feelings of His Love.
There is no reason to be sad and troubled. We Human Beings will always have worries and troubles, but we do not have to Live as one. Life is simple, when Love is the answer.
The Holy Words of Scripture are more than Words. They are the Thoughts of God, Divinely imparted to His Precious Children, to us. These are Words of Truth. Let us give Thanks for His Sacred Word, which offers Life to our Souls. Trust in the Word of God, and know that all will be well. .
Breathe in the Sunlight, into your pillar of Light, through your eyes. And breathe in the Salvation of the Lord, through His Holy Word.
“Those who were seen Dancing were thought to be insane by those who could not hear the Music.” – Friedrich Nietzsche
The Doors of Heaven have opened and Blessed the Earth and every Heart and every Soul that will hearken to the Divine Rhythms of our Lord. .
We’ve all had those well-intentioned moments when we resolve to make sweeping lifestyle changes: Quit smoking.Lose 20 pounds. Join a gym and start exercising every day.
While we should always strive to accomplish these types of health goals, the road to better health doesn’t always have to mean making huge leaps.
There are also many smaller steps you can take that will help improve your overall health and quality of life — and because they’re things you can easily incorporate into your routine, they’ll be easy to maintain for the long haul. Even if you have only a few minutes to spare, you can use that time to improve your well-being.
Try incorporating the following activities and strategies into your day. When these simple steps become habits, they can add up to a big positive effect on your overall health.
1. Enjoy de-stressing.
Experts recommend regular exercise, meditation and breathing techniques to reduce stress. But even something as simple — and enjoyable — as listening to soothing music, reading a good book, soaking in a hot tub or playing with your pet can help you relax.
Don’t have a lot of time? Don’t let that stress you out. As with exercise, even brief periods of relaxation are beneficial.
Spending even 10 minutes at a time doing something you enjoycan go a long way toward beating the stressors of everyday life. Just reading one chapter or taking your dog for a few laps around the block will help you feel calmer, more refreshed and more energized.
If you can’t take a full break from whatever you’re doing, try simply taking a few slow, deep breaths in that moment. When you slow down your breathing, it helps you relax. This relaxation response releases body chemicals that relieve stress and may improve immune function.
Deep breathing can also lower your resting heart rate. People with lower resting heart rates are typically in better physical condition than those with higher rates.
2. Put away the salt.
A saltshaker on the dining table makes it all too easy to consume excess salt, which can lead to high blood pressure. So put the shaker in a cabinet or pantry and bring it out only when you’re cooking.
It’s also a good idea to taste your food before you salt it. You may find it doesn’t need more.
You can also try spicing up your food with lemon or lime juice, garlic, red pepper flakes, herbs or a salt-free seasoning blend. Stock your fridge and pantry with your favorite fresh and dried herbs so you’ll always have them on hand to flavor your foods.
3. Get to bed earlier.
Most of us don’t get the seven or more hours of sleep adults need.
Over time, a shortage of shut-eye can raise your risk of a heart attack or stroke — regardless of your age, weight or exercise habits.
If you’re consistently sleep-deprived, going to bed even 15 minutes earlier every night could help. Also set a regular sleep and wake schedule, and stick to it — even on days off.
4. Check your posture and ergonomics.
Next time you’re at your desk or on the phone, take a moment to think about your posture. Then straighten up your back, tuck in your stomach and put your feet flat on the floor with your legs uncrossed. You’ll feel more relaxed right away.
The few seconds this takes can help you avoid back pain, one of the most common health problems in the United States and a leading cause of disability.
And if you work at a computer, look at the ergonomics of your workstation — how you fit and move in your environment — to help prevent back and neck strain, carpal tunnel syndrome, eye strain and other occupational injuries.
A few simple adjustments, such as repositioning your computer monitor, switching to a chair that provides more low back support and taking regular breaks throughout the day to do stretching exercises, can go a long way toward creating a healthier and more comfortable workspace.
The next time you’re going to a higher floor, bypass the elevator and climb the stairs instead. You’ll get your blood pumping, exercise your lungs and work the muscles in your lower body. .
5. Do a crossword puzzle.
Researchers at Rush have found that mentally challenging activities, such as reading, doing crossword puzzles or Sodoku and playing chess, may have a protective effect on your brain.
According to research studies, regularly engaging your mind may help lower your risk for the dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Don’t enjoy puzzles or games? Don’t worry: There are other ways to maintain your brain health. Eat with your nondominant hand. Walk a new route home from work. And connect with others — staying socially engaged may also protect against dementia.
6. Weigh in.
Maintaining a healthy weight can lower your risk for heart disease, stroke and some types of cancer. But for women, there’s another reason to keep pounds from piling on: It will decrease the risk for future pelvic floor disorders, says Cheryl Wolfe, MD, an OB-GYN at Rush University Medical Center.
Pelvic floor disorders are more common in women who have delivered babies vaginally. However, a recent study found that even women who have never had a vaginal birth are at increased risk for urinary stress incontinence if they’re overweight or obese.
7. Make a few dietary substitutions.
Swap white bread, rice, crackers and pasta for healthier whole grainversions.
Use skinlesschicken and turkey in your recipes instead of skin-on, and leaner cuts of other meats such as beef or pork.
Replace one sugary drink (soda, juice, etc.) each day with a tall glass of water.
If you get hungry between meals, snack on a handful of almonds or cashews, a piece of whole fruit, or carrot sticks dipped in hummus rather than reaching for candy bars or potato chips.
In addition, try incorporating an extra serving of non-starchy vegetables into your daily diet.
Want a snack? Munch on a carrot instead of a cookie. Making dinner for your family? Serve broccoli or spinach as a side dish instead of mashed potatoes. Add green peas to your brown rice, or slices of red or yellow pepper to your sandwich.
It’s no secret that vegetables — especially dark, leafy greens — are good for you. But there’s another benefit to packing more veggies into your daily diet: They’re rich in fiber and contain lots of water, so they’ll leave you full and satisfied without a lot of calories and fat.
There are plenty of great recipes in cookbooks and online — including on Rush’s content hub — for tasty yet healthful veggie dishes.
8. Take the stairs.
The next time you’re going to a higher floor, bypass the elevator and climb the stairs instead. You’ll get your blood pumping, exercise your lungs and work the muscles in your lower body.
It’s a great way to add physical activity to your day without having to block out time to exercise. If you are aiming for the recommended 10,000 steps each day, taking the stairs counts toward that total.
All of these small steps can add up to a healthier you.
9. Stretch it out.
Regularly stretching your muscleshelps you avoid injuries, stay limber and move freely as you age.
Take a few minutes to stretch out before and after you exercise. If you aren’t working out that day, take a few stretch breaks. Find a quiet space in the office where you won’t be disturbed. On the go? Look for natural opportunities in your daily routine to stretch, such as getting out of your car or reaching for items on a high shelf at the store.
Stretching right before bed can also help you relieve tension and help you get to sleep.
And balance exercises — like Tai Chi — can help dramatically reduce your risk of dangerous falls.
The good news is that it’s never too early — or too late — to adopt healthy habits.
When you’re young, you can build the foundation for a lifetime of good health. When you’re older, healthy habits can help you control any diseases you have and lower your risk of getting others in the future.
“He who opens a school door, closes a prison. “ – Victor Hugo